Ocean Vietnam 2015, the beautiful Miss Dang Thu Thao
officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country
on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated 90.3
million inhabitants as of 2012, it is the world's 13th-most-populous
country, and the eighth-most-populous Asian country. The name Vietnam
translates as "Southern Viet" (synonymous with the much more
ancient term Nam Viet), and was first officially adopted in 1802 by
Emperor Gia Long and again in 1945 with the founding of the Democratic
Republic of Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh. The country is bordered by China
to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the
South China Sea to the east. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the
reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976.
The Vietnamese became independent from Imperial China in 938 AD,
following the resounding Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch
Đằng River. Successive Vietnamese royal dynasties flourished
as the nation expanded geographically and politically into Southeast
Asia, until the Indochina Peninsula was colonized by the French in the
mid-19th century. Following a Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the
Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War, eventually
expelling the French in 1954. Thereafter, Vietnam was divided
politically into two rival states, North and South Vietnam. Conflict
between the two sides intensified, in what is known as the Vietnam War,
with the North and the Vietcong fighting South Vietnam heavily backed by
the US. The war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975.
Vietnam was then unified under a Communist government but remained
impoverished and politically isolated. In 1986, the government initiated
a series of economic and political reforms which began Vietnam's path
towards integration into the world economy. By 2000, it had established
diplomatic relations with most nations. Since 2000, Vietnam's economic
growth rate has been among the highest in the world, and in 2011 it had
the highest Global Growth Generators Index among 11 major economies. Its
successful economic reforms resulted in its joining the World Trade
Organization in 2007. However, the country still experiences high levels
of income inequality, disparities in access to healthcare, and a lack of
As a coastal country, Vietnam has many major sea ports, including Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Gai, Qui Nhơn, Vũng Tàu and Nha Trang. Further inland, the country's extensive network of rivers play a key role in rural transportation, with over 17,700 kilometres (11,000 mi) of navigable waterways carrying ferries, barges and water taxis.
In addition, the Mekong Delta and Red River Delta are vital to Vietnam's social and economic welfare – most of the country's population lives along or near these river deltas, and the major cities of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are situated near the Mekong and Red River deltas, respectively. Further out in the South China Sea, Vietnam currently controls the majority of the disputed Spratly Islands, which are the source of longstanding disagreements with China and other nearby nations.
Vietnam is located on the eastern Indochina Peninsula between the latitudes 8° and 24°N, and the longitudes 102° and 110°E. It covers a total area of approximately 331,210 km2 (127,881 sq mi), making it almost the size of Germany. The combined length of the country's land boundaries is 4,639 km (2,883 mi), and its coastline is 3,444 km (2,140 mi) long. Vietnam's land is mostly hilly and densely forested, with level land covering no more than 20%. Mountains account for 40% of the country's land area, and tropical forests cover around 42%.
The northern part of the country consists mostly of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai Province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam, standing 3,143 m (10,312 ft) high. Southern Vietnam is divided into coastal lowlands, the mountains of the Annamite Range, and extensive forests. Comprising five relatively flat plateaus of basalt soil, the highlands account for 16% of the country's arable land and 22% of its total forested land. The soil in much of southern Vietnam is relatively poor in nutrients.
The Red River Delta, a flat, roughly triangular region covering 15,000 km2 (5,792 sq mi), is smaller but more intensely developed and more densely populated than the Mekong River Delta. Once an inlet of the Gulf of Tonkin, it has been filled in over the millennia by riverine alluvial deposits. The delta, covering about 40,000 km2 (15,444 sq mi), is a low-level plain no more than 3 meters (9.8 ft) above sea level at any point. It is criss-crossed by a maze of rivers and canals, which carry so much sediment that the delta advances 60 to 80 meters (196.9 to 262.5 ft) into the sea every year.
Vietnamese scholars developed many academic fields during the dynastic era, most notably social sciences and the humanities. The country boasts a millennium-deep legacy of analytical histories, such as the Đại Việt sử kư toàn thư of Ngô Sĩ Liên. Vietnamese monks led by the abdicated Emperor Trần Nhân Tông developed the Trúc Lâm Zen branch of philosophy in the 13th century. Arithmetics and geometry have been widely taught in Vietnam since the 15th century, using the textbook Đại thành toán pháp by Lương Thế Vinh as a basis. Lương Thế Vinh introduced Vietnam to the notion of zero, while Mạc Hiển Tích used the term số ẩn (en: "unknown/secret/hidden number") to refer to negative numbers. Vietnamese scholars furthermore produced numerous encyclopedias, such as Lê Quư Đôn's Vân đài loại ngữ.
In recent times, Vietnamese scientists have made many significant contributions in various fields of study, most notably in mathematics. Hoàng Tụy pioneered the applied mathematics field of global optimization in the 20th century, while Ngô Bảo Châu won the 2010 Fields Medal for his proof of fundamental lemma in the theory of automorphic forms. Vietnam is currently working to develop an indigenous space program, and plans to construct the US$600 million Vietnam Space Center by 2018. Vietnam has also made significant advances in the development of robots, such as the TOPIO humanoid model. In 2010, Vietnam's total state spending on science and technology
equaled around 0.45% of its GDP.
The Vietnam People's Armed Forces consists of the Vietnam People's Army, the Vietnam People's Public Security and the Vietnam Civil Defense Force. The Vietnam People's Army (VPA) is the official name for the active military services of Vietnam, and is subdivided into the Vietnam People's Ground Forces, the Vietnam People's Navy, the Vietnam People's Air Force, the Vietnam Border Defense Force and the Vietnam Marine Police. The VPA has an active manpower of around 450,000, but its total strength, including paramilitary forces, may be as high as 5,000,000. In 2011, Vietnam's military expenditure
US$2.48 billion, equivalent to around 2.5% of its 2010 GDP.
WITH A PURPOSE - Beauty competitions gain media attention for contestants and the
objects of the pageant. The object of the Miss Ocean contest it
to draw attention to: 1. Climate Change, 2. Ocean Pollution, and
3. Equal rights for all citizens of planet earth. Click on the
picture above to read the (draft) rules. You can also have your
say on how the competition should be formatted to truly achieve
the stated objects.
Rock Desert, Nevada
Utah - History
- West Pier
York - Au
- Central America - Sea
- S. America
- Sri Lanka
Isle of Wight
- Florida USA
England - Sandgate
- The City
- Tower Bridge
- Central America
Sands - Carmarthen
Moresby - PNG
Said - Egypt
Lake City - Utah
Lanka - Links
- Lesser Antilles
- United Arab Emirates
- South America