of the Pacific Islands, showing the partner governments to a Blue Bond,
that is to enable the stability of transportation and move away from
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands is an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia. The country's population of 53,158 people (at the 2011 Census) is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The capital and largest city is Majuro.
The islands share maritime boundaries with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the
north, Kiribati to the southeast, and Nauru to the south. About 52.3% of Marshall Islanders (27,797 at the 2011 Census) live on Majuro. Data from the
United Nations indicates an estimated population in 2016 of 53,066. In 2016, 73.3% of the population were defined as being "urban". The UN also indicates a
population density of 295 per km2 (765 people per mi2) and its projected 2020 population is 53,263.
Micronesian colonists reached the Marshall Islands using canoes circa 2nd millennium BC, with interisland navigation made possible using traditional stick charts. They eventually settled
here. Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans in the 1520s, starting with Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer in the service of
Spain, Juan Sebastián Elcano and Miguel de Saavedra. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar reported sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed. The islands derive their name from John Marshall, who visited in 1788. The islands were historically known by the inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij" (Gifts from God).
Spain claimed the islands in 1592, and the European powers recognized its sovereignty over the islands in 1874. They had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since 1528. Later, Spain sold some of the islands to the German Empire in 1885, and they became part of
German New Guinea that year, run by the trading companies doing business in the islands, particularly the Jaluit Company. In World War I the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which in 1920, the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Pacific Mandate. During World War II, the
United States took control of the islands in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign in 1944. Nuclear testing began on Bikini Atoll in 1946 and concluded in 1958.
The US government formed the Congress of Micronesia in 1965, a plan for increased self-governance of Pacific islands. The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1979 provided independence to the Marshall Islands, whose constitution and president (Amata Kabua) were formally recognized by the US. Full sovereignty or self-government was achieved in a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Marshall Islands has been a member of the Pacific Community (SPC) since 1983 and a United Nations member state since 1991. Politically, the Marshall Islands is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, with the US providing defense, subsidies, and access to U.S.-based agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission and the United States Postal Service. With few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture; aid from the United States represents a large percentage of the islands' gross domestic product. The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. In 2018, it also announced plans for a new cryptocurrency to be used as legal tender.
The majority of the citizens of the Republic of Marshall Islands, formed in 1982, are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the United States,
China, Philippines, and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese, which is one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages; and English. Almost the entire population of the islands practices some religion: three-quarters of the country follows either the United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands (UCCCMI) or the Assemblies of God.
of the Marshall Islands
PACIFIC BLUE SHIPPING PARTNERSHIP
Coalition know as the Pacific Blue Shipping Partnership includes the
Governments of: Fiji,
Solomon, Tuvalu and Vanuatu Islands, as announced on Tuesday 24th
September 2019. The Partnership has set an emissions reduction target of
40% by 2030, and full decarbonisation by 2050. There are as yet limited
practical solutions to solve the coalition's aims.
region imports 95% of its fossil
fuels. Imported petroleum
accounts for an average of 40% of GDP in Pacific island countries, with
the transport sector the largest fuel user.
archipelago states of small island populations spread over vast ocean
distances, sea travel is vital for linking communities and for economic
development. The lack of regular connectivity between islands is a major
constraint on domestic, social and economic development and on
international trade. This represents a challenge that falls within scope
of the Horizon
2020 call for proposal in September 2019.
Peter Nuttall, a scientific and technical adviser for the Micronesian
Center for Sustainable Transport at the University of the South Pacific,
Guardian that shipping was the “absolute lifeline” of any
“Without shipping, our economies die, our people can’t survive. In
places like the Solomon Islands or the Marshall Islands, 80% to 90% of
all goods arrive by ship. We have the most expensive shipping in the
world, the longest transport routes, and the worst ships.”
He said the Pacific
was acutely vulnerable to oil shocks, citing examples from remote
Pacific islands where critical services, such as visits by health
professionals, had to be abandoned because fuel prices were too high.
Dr Nuttall said the Pacific “cannot wait for the rest of the world.
We have to bespoke design a Pacific solution if it is going to work, not
leave the Pacific to languish.
running the biggest risk. The Pacific did nothing to cause climate
change, but we’re about to get smashed by it. What is it we can
practically do to make people’s lives better now? We know the answers,
and we don’t have time to wait.”
- Pacific Island coalition seeks zero carbon shipping.
the Marshall islands natural heritage ..
- End view of a zero emission container ship that is designed for long
distance runs and payloads of 120 tonnes. Ideal for economical transport
with adding to global warming
- Side and plan views of a zero carbon container ship that is powered
only by the sun and wind. The design features autonomous tracking of the
light and wind energy using computers, to enhance energy harvesting.
- West Pier
York - Au
- Sri Lanka
Isle of Wight
- The City
- Tower Bridge
- Central America
Moresby - PNG
Said - Egypt
Lake City - Utah USA
Lanka - Links
- Lesser Antilles
- United Arab Emirates