bowling is a competitive sport
and recreation in which a player (the "bowler") rolls a
bowling ball down a wooden or "synthetic" (polyurethane)
"lane" with the objective of scoring points by knocking down
as many "pins" as possible.
41.5-inch wide, 60-foot long lane is bordered along it's length by
"gutters" - semicircular channels designed to collect errant
balls which also pose an obstacle to advanced bowlers, because a
straight ball can not be rolled on a regulation lane at the angle
required to consistently "carry" (knock down) all ten pins for
a strike (most skillful bowlers will roll a more difficult-to-control
"hook" ball to overcome this). There is a "foul
line" at the end of the lane nearest to the bowler: if any part of
a bowler's body touches the lane side of this line after the ball is
"delivered" (rolled), it is called a "foul" and no
pins knocked over by that delivery are scored (The bowler is allowed a
shot at a new "rack" of ten pins if he fouled on the first
roll of a frame.). Behind the foul line is an "approach"
approximately 15 feet long used to gain speed and leverage on the ball
before delivering it. 60 feet from the foul line, where the lane
terminates, it is joined to a roughly 24-inch long, 41.5-inch wide
surface of durable and impact-resistant material called the "pin
deck" where each rack of pins is set.
bowler is allowed ten frames in which to knock down pins, with each
frame being composed of up to two rolls. The tenth frame may be composed
of up to three rolls: the bonus roll(s) following a strike or spare in
the tenth (sometimes referred to as the "eleventh" and
"twelfth" frames) are "fill balls" used only to
calculate the score of the mark rolled in the tenth. Bowling has a
unique scoring system (see below) that is notoriously confusing to
newcomers who attempt to score a game with multiple "marks"
(strikes and spares). Bowling scores tend to be unintuitive: if a bowler
was to knock down 9 pins with his first shot but miss his spare every
frame, he would have a score of 90; if the same bowler were to make all
of his spares and knock down 9 with the bonus ball, he would have a
score of 190. If he were to carry all ten pins with each shot and strike
with each of his bonus balls in the tenth frame, he would have shot a
"perfect game" of 300.
being brought to the United States from Europe, ten-pin
bowling (thought to be descended from the game of skittles) has
risen in popularity as its technology has improved. The sport is most
popular in the United Kingdom and the United States. Both nations
maintain national regulatory organizations that govern the sport's rules
and conduct and many of those countries' best players participate in
tournaments on both the national and international stage. Because of the
rise in popularity, many companies are now making bowling balls and
apparel for professionals as well as for recreational bowlers. Bowling
has also become more prevalent in the media in recent years, with the
continued popularity of bowling publications and the appearance of films
centered around the culture of the sport. However, the sport continues
to face challenges in garnering mainstream coverage of the athletic
aspects of the game.
Loretta (Unknown). Bowling
Ball - Background, History, Structural Evolution. http://www.madehow.com.
History of Bowling in the United Kingdom. www.gotenpin.co.uk.
Staff (2006). TenpinBowling.org:
All about bowling. TenpinBowling.org..
James (2005). Skittles,
Nine Pins - Online Guide. Tradgames.org.uk.
Staff (June 6th, 2005). Who
invented bowling?. Yahoo.com..
Wendy (2002). St.
James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture: Bowling. Gale Group.
James. H., Walter, John C. (July, 2005). Afro-Americans
in New York Life and History: The integration of the American
Bowling Congress: the Buffalo experience. Afro-American
Historical Association of the Niagara Frontier, Inc..
Tenpin Bowling Facts. amfbowlingworldcup.com.
States Bowling Congress Staff (August 1st, 2005). bowl.com
- Official Web Site of the United States Bowling Congress - Playing
Rules. United States Bowling Congress.
Tenpin Bowling Association Staff (August 1st, 2005). BTBA
- Official Web Site of the British Tenpin Bowling Association -
Playing Rules. British Tenpin Bowling Association.
Tenpin Bowling Association (2006). http://www.wtba.ws/
- WTBA Rules & Regulations. WTBA.
Randy (2006). Professional
Bowlers Association: Randy's Rants: Bowling Lingo. Professional
Bowling Dot Org: The Game » Glossary: Bowling Lingo.
Tenpin Bowling Dot Org..
Club 2005 Staff (January 14th, 2006). Elliot
Crosby becomes the youngest player in the UK to shoot 300.
Bowler's Club 2005.
Joyce (March 23rd, 2006). Tang
sets new national record as youngest 300 shooter. bowl.com.
David (March 29th, 2006). ENGLANDYAC.COM.
Young Adults Club.
Arthur J. (2006). The
British Tenpin Bowling Association. British Tenpin Bowling
Sport Staff (2006). UK
Sport - Drug Free Sport. UK Sport Association.
writers (2006). Just
Don't Do It. Go Tenpin Magazine.
Lisa (July, 1998). American
Demographics: Bowling throws a strike. Media Central,
International Group Ltd (July, 2004). Tenpin
Bowling - UK. Mintel International Group Ltd..
Tom (January 22nd, 2002). USAtoday.com
- TV's been great for bowling, but needs to do more. USA today,
Tom (June 2nd, 2004). WHY
THE MEDIA HATES BOWLING. Luby publishing, Inc.
Tom (October 30th, 2001). USAtoday.com
- Bowling's three hurdles to gain respect. USA today, Inc..
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