Humpback whales are a superb example of nature's ability to diversify and come up with the ultimate machine for the task.


Planet Earth, conservation of species and the natural world



Length: 13–17 meters
Weight: 25–40 tons.
Worldwide population: 10.000–15.000 individuals
Life expectancy: Ca. 95 years



Humpback whale classic backflip broach


The Humpback Whale famous for broaching



The hump back whale in Icelandic waters is 12,5-13 m long.  The females weigh 30-48 tons and the males 25-35.  Its life expectancy is about 95 years.  The flippers are very long, usually black, or black and white on top with a white underside, and their front edge is knobby.  The back is black and the underside is light coloured.  The colour pattern on the neck and the breast are variable.  The baleens are dark grey.  The white and black patterns on the underside of the flukes are used as fingerprints to recognize the individuals.

The humpback whale occurs in all of the world’s oceans.  In the North Atlantic, the whales’ habitat reaches between Northwest Africa and the West Indies to the ice edge in the northern seas.  Mating takes place during the migration in March-May, the gestation period is 11 months and pregnancy occurs every two years.  The calf is 4½-5 m long at birth and is suckled for 5 months.

The mainstay of the food is krill, but also small fishes, such as capelin and herring.  Humpbacks are often found in shoals of 2-20 animals and are rather slow swimmers.  Their curiosity often draws them to passing vessels and sometimes they leap high out of the water.  Each dive takes 15-20 minutes and sometimes a few animals round scattered schools of small fishes up by releasing air from below them and then ascend gaping to fill their mouths.  They communicate or “sing” much during the mating period and are observed closed to shore than other large species.

Humpbacks were a rare species off the Icelandic coast after the overexploitation of the Norwegians and have been totally protected since 1955.  Their main summer habitats were off the east- and southeast coast, but they were caught all around the country.  Parts of the stocks remain in the northern seas during winter as well.  Pregnant cows swim south to give birth and then return in summer.  American harpoons have been found in humpbacks off the North Norwegian coast.

Humpbacks are among the most spotted species during whale watching tours all around the country.



Humpback whale vertically submerged with sucker fish attached


A Humpback Whale with fish attached



The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a species of baleen whale. One of the larger rorqual species, adults range in length from 12–16 metres (39–52 ft) and weigh approximately 36,000 kilograms (79,000 lb). The humpback has a distinctive body shape, with unusually long pectoral fins and a knobbly head. It is an acrobatic animal, often breaching and slapping the water. Males produce a complex song, which lasts for 10 to 20 minutes and is repeated for hours at a time. The purpose of the song is not yet clear, although it appears to have a role in mating.

Found in oceans and seas around the world, humpback whales typically migrate up to 25,000 kilometres (16,000 mi) each year. Humpbacks feed only in summer, in polar waters, and migrate to tropical or sub-tropical waters to breed and give birth in the winter. During the winter, humpbacks fast and live off their fat reserves. The species' diet consists mostly of krill and small fish. Humpbacks have a diverse repertoire of feeding methods, including the bubble net feeding technique.

Like other large whales, the humpback was and is a target for the whaling industry. Due to over-hunting, its population fell by an estimated 90% before a whaling moratorium was introduced in 1966. Stocks have since partially recovered; however, entanglement in fishing gear, collisions with ships, and noise pollution also remain concerns. There are at least 80,000 humpback whales worldwide. Once hunted to the brink of extinction, humpbacks are now sought by whale-watchers, particularly off parts of Australia, New Zealand, South America, Canada, and the United States.



B. bonaerensis (southern minke whale)

B. acutorostra (northern minke whale)

B. physalus (fin whale)

B. edeni (pygmy Bryde's whale)

B. borealis (Sei whale)

B. brydei (Bryde's whale)

B. musculus (blue whale)

Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale)

Eschrichtius robustus (gray whale)


A phylogenetic tree of animals related to the humpback whale 




Humpback whales are rorquals (family Balaenopteridae), a family that includes the blue whale, the fin whale, the Bryde's whale, the sei whale and the minke whale. The rorquals are believed to have diverged from the other families of the suborder Mysticeti as long ago as the middle Miocene. However, it is not known when the members of these families diverged from each other.

Though clearly related to the giant whales of the genus Balaenoptera, the humpback has been the sole member of its genus since Gray's work in 1846. More recently though, DNA sequencing analysis has indicated the Humpback is more closely related to certain rorquals, particularly the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), and possibly to the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), than it is to rorquals such as the minke whales. If further research confirms these relationships, it will be necessary to reclassify the rorquals.

The humpback whale was first identified as "baleine de la Nouvelle Angleterre" by Mathurin Jacques Brisson in his Regnum Animale of 1756. In 1781, Georg Heinrich Borowski described the species, converting Brisson's name to its Latin equivalent, Balaena novaeangliae. In 1804, Lacépède shifted the humpback from the Balaenidae family, renaming it Balaenoptera jubartes. In 1846, John Edward Gray created the genus Megaptera, classifying the humpback as Megaptera longipinna, but in 1932, Remington Kellogg reverted the species names to use Borowski's novaeangliae. The common name is derived from the curving of their back when diving. The generic name Megaptera from the Greek mega-/μεγα- "giant" and ptera/πτερα "wing", refers to their large front flippers. The specific name means "New Englander" and was probably given by Brisson due the regular sightings of humpbacks off the coast of New England.


Head of a young humpback whale


The head of a young humpback whale



A humpback whale can easily be identified by its stocky body with an obvious hump and black dorsal coloring. The head and lower jaw are covered with knobs called tubercles, which are actually hair follicles, and are characteristic of the species. The fluked tail, which it lifts above the surface in some dive sequences, has wavy trailing edges. The four global populations, all under study, are: North Pacific, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean humpbacks, which have distinct populations which complete a migratory round-trip each year and the Indian Ocean population, which does not migrate, prevented by that ocean's northern coastline.

The long black and white tail fin, which can be up to a third of body length, and the pectoral fins have unique patterns, which make individual whales identifiable. Several hypotheses attempt to explain the humpback's pectoral fins, which are proportionally the longest fins of any cetacean. The two most enduring mention the higher maneuverability afforded by long fins, and the usefulness of the increased surface area for temperature control when migrating between warm and cold climates. Humpbacks also have 'rete mirabile', a heat exchanging system, which works similarly in humpbacks, sharks and other fish.

A tail from a different individual - the tail of each humpback whale is visibly unique.Humpbacks have 270 to 400 darkly coloured baleen plates on each side of the mouth. The plates measure from a mere 18 inches (46 cm) in the front to approximately 3 feet (0.91 m) long in the back, behind the hinge. Ventral grooves run from the lower jaw to the umbilicus about halfway along the underside of the whale. These grooves are less numerous (usually 16–20) and consequently more prominent than in other rorquals.

The stubby dorsal fin is visible soon after the blow when the whale surfaces, but disappears by the time the flukes emerge. Humpbacks have a 3 metres (9.8 ft) heart-shaped to bushy blow, or exhalation of water through the blowholes. Because Humpback Whales breathe voluntarily, it is possible that the whales shut off only half of the brain when sleeping. Early whalers also noted blows from humpback adults to be 10–20 feet (3.0–6.1 m) high.

Newborn calves are roughly the length of their mother's head. At birth, calves measure 20 feet (6.1 m) at 2 short tons (1.8 t) The mother, by comparison, is about 50 feet (15 m). They nurse for approximately six months, then mix nursing and independent feeding for possibly six months more. Humpback milk is 50% fat and pink in color. Some calves have been observed alone after arrival in Alaskan waters.


Young humpback whale with blowholes clearly visible


Young humpback whale with blowholes clearly visible


Females reach sexual maturity at the age of five, achieving full adult size a little later. Males reach sexual maturity at approximately 7 years of age. The humpback whale lifespan ranges from 45–100 years.

Fully grown, the males average 15–16 metres (49–52 ft). Females are slightly larger at 16–17 metres (52–56 ft), and 40,000 kilograms (44 short tons); the largest recorded specimen was 19 metres (62 ft) long and had pectoral fins measuring 6 metres (20 ft) each.

Females have a hemispherical lobe about 15 centimetres (5.9 in) in diameter in their genital region. This visually distinguishes males and females. The male's penis usually remains hidden in the genital slit. Male whales have distinctive scars on heads and bodies, some resulting from battles over females.

Identifying individuals


The varying patterns on the tail flukes are sufficient to identify individuals. Unique visual identification is not currently possible in most cetacean species (other exceptions include orcas and right whales), making the humpback a popular study species. A study using data from 1973 to 1998 on whales in the North Atlantic gave researchers detailed information on gestation times, growth rates, and calving periods, as well as allowing more accurate population predictions by simulating the mark-release-recapture technique (Katona and Beard 1982). A photographic catalogue of all known North Atlantic whales was developed over this period and is currently maintained by College of the Atlantic. Similar photographic identification projects have begun in the North Pacific by SPLASH (Structure of Populations, Levels of Abundance and Status of Humpbacks), and around the world.



Females typically breed every two or three years. The gestation period is 11.5 months, yet some individuals have been known to breed in two consecutive years. The peak months for birth are January, February, July, and August. There is usually a 1-2 year period between humpback births. Humpback whales can live up to 48 years.

Recent research on humpback mitochondrial DNA reveals that groups that live in proximity to each other may represent distinct breeding pools.



A humpback in the waters of the Abrolhos Archipelago



Humpback whale broaching backwards


A humpback whale broaching backwards


Social structure


Whale surfacing behaviour

Humpbacks frequently breach, throwing two thirds or more of their bodies out of the water and splashing down on their backs. 


The humpback social structure is loose-knit. Typically, individuals live alone or in small, transient groups that disband after a few hours. These whales are not excessively social in most cases. Groups may stay together a little longer in summer to forage and feed cooperatively. Longer-term relationships between pairs or small groups, lasting months or even years, have rarely been observed. It is possible that some females retain bonds created via cooperative feeding for a lifetime. The humpback's range overlaps considerably with other whale and dolphin species — for instance, the minke whale. However, humpbacks rarely interact socially with them, though humpback calves in Hawaiian waters sometimes play with bottlenose dolphin calves.



Courtship rituals take place during the winter months, following migration toward the equator from summer feeding grounds closer to the poles. Competition is usually fierce, and unrelated males dubbed escorts by researcher Louis Herman frequently trail females as well as mother-calf dyads. Groups of two to twenty males gather around a single female and exhibit a variety of behaviors over several hours to establish dominance of what is known as a competitive group. Group size ebbs and flows as unsuccessful males retreat and others arrive to try their luck. Behaviors include breaching, spyhopping, lob-tailing, tail-slapping, fin-slapping, peduncle throws, charging and parrying. Less common "super pods" may number more than 40 males, all vying for the same female. (M. Ferrari et al.)

Whale song is assumed to have an important role in mate selection; however, scientists remain unsure whether song is used between males to establish identity and dominance, between a male and a female as a mating call, or both.



A humpback whale tail displaying wavy rear edges 


A humpback whale tail displaying wavy rear edges 



Whale song

Spectrogram of Humpback Whale vocalizations. Detail is shown for the first 24 seconds of the 37-second recording "Singing Humpbacks". The ethereal whale "songs" and echolocation "clicks" are visible as horizontal striations and vertical sweeps respectively. Spectrogram generated with Fatpigdog's PC based Real Time FFT Spectrum Analyzer. Singing Humpbacks

Both male and female humpback whales vocalize, however only males produce the long, loud, complex "songs" for which the species is famous. Each song consists of several sounds in a low register that vary in amplitude and frequency, and typically lasts from 10 to 20 minutes. Humpbacks may sing continuously for more than 24 hours. Cetaceans have no vocal cords, so whales generate their song by forcing air through their massive nasal cavities.

Whales within a large area sing the same song. All North Atlantic humpbacks sing the same song, and those of the North Pacific sing a different song. Each population's song changes slowly over a period of years without repeating.

Scientists are unsure of the purpose of whale song. Only males sing, suggesting that one purpose is to attract females. However, many of the whales observed to approach a singer are other males, and results in conflict. Singing may therefore be a challenge to other males. Some scientists have hypothesized that the song may serve an echolocative function. During the feeding season, humpbacks make altogether different vocalizations for herding fish into their bubble nets.

All these behaviors also occur absent potential mates. This indicates that they are probably a more general communication tool. Scientists hypothesize that singing may keep migrating populations connected. (Ferrari, Nicklin, Darling, et al.) Some observers report that singing begins when competition for a female ends.

Humpback whales have also been found to make a range of other social sounds to communicate such as "grunts", "groans", "thwops", "snorts" and "barks".


A group of 15 humpback whales bubble net fishing near Juneau, Alaska 


A group of 15 whales bubble net fishing near Juneau, Alaska 





Humpbacks feed primarily in summer and live off fat reserves during winter. They feed only rarely and opportunistically in their wintering waters. The humpback is an energetic hunter, taking krill and small schooling fish such as Atlantic herring, Atlantic salmon, capelin, and American sand lance as well as Atlantic mackerel, pollock, and haddock in the North Atlantic. Krill and copepods have been recorded as prey species in Australian and Antarctic waters. Humpbacks hunt by direct attack or by stunning prey by hitting the water with pectoral fins or flukes.

The humpback has the most diverse feeding repertoire of all baleen whales. Its most inventive technique is known as bubble net feeding: a group of whales swims in a shrinking circle blowing bubbles below a school of prey. The shrinking ring of bubbles encircles the school and confines it in an ever-smaller cylinder. This ring can begin at up to 30 metres (98 ft) in diameter and involve the cooperation of a dozen animals. Using a crittercam attached to a whale's back it was discovered that some whales blow the bubbles, some dive deeper to drive fish toward the surface, and others herd prey into the net by vocalizing. The whales then suddenly swim upward through the 'net', mouths agape, swallowing thousands of fish in one gulp. Plated grooves in the whale's mouth allow the creature to easily drain all the water that was initially taken in.









Given scarring records, killer whales are thought to prey upon juvenile humpbacks, though this has never been witnessed. The result of these attacks is generally nothing more serious than some scarring of the skin, but it is likely that young calves are sometimes killed.

Range and habitat


Humpbacks inhabit all major oceans, in a wide band running from the Antarctic ice edge to 77° N latitude, though not in the eastern Mediterranean or the Baltic Sea.

Humpbacks are migratory, spending summers in cooler, high-latitude waters and mating and calving in tropical and subtropical waters. An exception to this rule is a population in the Arabian Sea, which remains in these tropical waters year-round. Annual migrations of up to 25,000 kilometres (16,000 mi) are typical, making it one of the mammal's best-traveled species.

A large population spreads across the Hawaiian islands every winter, ranging from the island of Hawaii in the south to Kure Atoll in the north. A 2007 study identified seven individuals wintering off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica as having traveled from the Antarctic — around 8,300 kilometres (5,200 mi). Identified by their unique tail patterns, these animals made the longest documented mammalian migration.

In Australia, two main migratory populations have been identified, off the west and east coast respectively. These two populations are distinct, with only a few females in each generation crossing between the two groups.



Entangled in rope, a humpback struggles


Entangled in rope, a humpback struggles



Whaling in Japan

Humpback whales were hunted as early as the 18th century, but distinguished by whalers as early as the first decades of the 17th century.

By the 19th century, many nations (the United States in particular), were hunting the animal heavily in the Atlantic Ocean, and to a lesser extent in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It was, however, the late 19th century introduction of the explosive harpoon that allowed whalers to accelerate their take. This, along with hunting in the Antarctic Ocean beginning in 1904, sharply reduced whale populations.

It is estimated that during the 20th century, at least 200,000 humpbacks were taken, reducing the global population by over 90%, with North Atlantic populations estimated to have dropped to as low as 700 individuals. In 1946, the International Whaling Commission was founded to oversee the whaling industry. They imposed rules and regulations for hunting whales and set open and closed hunting seasons. To prevent extinction, the International Whaling Commission banned commercial humpback whaling in 1966. By that time the population had been reduced to around 5,000. That ban is still in force.

Prior to commercial whaling, populations could have reached 125,000. North Pacific kills alone are estimated at 28,000. The full toll is much higher. It is now known that the Soviet Union was deliberately under-recording its catches; the Soviet catch was reported at 2,820 whereas the true number is now believed to be over 48,000.

As of 2004, hunting of humpback whales was restricted to a few animals each year off the Caribbean island Bequia in the nation of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The take is not believed to threaten the local population.

Japan had planned to kill 50 humpbacks in the 2007/08 season under its JARPA II research program, starting in November 2007. The announcement sparked global protests. After a visit to Tokyo by the chairman of the IWC, asking the Japanese for their co-operation in sorting out the differences between pro- and anti-whaling nations on the Commission, the Japanese whaling fleet agreed that no humpback whales would be caught for the two years it would take for the IWC to reach a formal agreement.

In 2010 the International Whaling Commission authorized Greenland’s native population to hunt a few humpback whales for the next three years.



A humpback whale broaching sideways


A humpback whale broaching sideways



There are at least 80,000 humpback whales worldwide, with 18,000-20,000 in the North Pacific, about 12,000 in the North Atlantic, and over 50,000 in the Southern Hemisphere, down from a pre-whaling population of 125,000.

This species is considered "least concern" from a conservation standpoint, as of 2008. This is an improvement from vulnerable in the prior assessment. Most monitored stocks of humpback whales have rebounded well since the end of commercial whaling, such as the North Atlantic where stocks are now believed to be approaching pre-hunting levels. However, the species is considered endangered in some countries, including the United States. The United States initiated a status review of the species on August 12, 2009, and is seeking public comment on potential changes to the species listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Areas where population data is limited and the species may be at higher risk include the Arabian Sea, the western North Pacific Ocean, the west coast of Africa and parts of Oceania.

Today, individuals are vulnerable to collisions with ships, entanglement in fishing gear, and noise pollution. Like other cetaceans, humpbacks can be injured by excessive noise. In the 19th century, two humpback whales were found dead near sites of repeated oceanic sub-bottom blasting, with traumatic injuries and fractures in the ears.

Once hunted to the brink of extinction, the humpback has made a dramatic comeback in the North Pacific. A 2008 study estimates that the humpback population that hit a low of 1,500 whales before hunting was banned worldwide, has made a comeback to a population of between 18,000 and 20,000.




Humpback Whale Skeleton on Display at The Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma


Humpback Whale Skeleton on Display at The Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma


Saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) from contaminated mackerel has been implicated in humpback whale deaths.

The United Kingdom, among other countries, designated the humpback as a priority species under the national Biodiversity Action Plan.

The sanctuary provided by U.S. National Parks such as Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Cape Hatteras National Seashore, among others, have also become major factors in sustaining populations.

Although much was learned about humpbacks from whaling, migratory patterns and social interactions were not well understood until two studies by R. Chittleborough and W. H. Dawbin in the 1960s. Roger Payne and Scott McVay made further studies of the species in 1971. Their analysis of whale song led to worldwide media interest and convinced the public mind that whales were highly intelligent, aiding the anti-whaling advocates.

In August 2008, the IUCN changed humpback's status from Vulnerable to Least Concern, although two subpopulations remain endangered.

The United States is considering listing separate humpback populations, so that smaller groups, such as North Pacific humpbacks, which are estimated to number 18,000-20,000 animals, might be de-listed. This is made difficult by humpback's extraordinary migrations, which can extend the 5,157 miles (8,299 km) from Antarctica to Costa Rica.


Whale watching


Humpback whales are generally curious about objects in their environment. Some individuals, referred to as "friendlies", approach whale-watching boats closely, often staying under or near the boat for many minutes. Because humpbacks are often easily approachable, curious, easily identifiable as individuals, and display many behaviors, they have become the mainstay of whale-watching tourism in many locations around the world. Hawaii has used the concept of "eco tourism" to use the species without killing them. This whale watching business attracts 1 million visitors a year, which results in a profit of $80 million.


Kulo Luna is a modern Moby Dick with an environmental twist by Jameson Hunter


Kulo Luna is a modern Moby Dick with an environmental twist

The film production company Blueplanet Netdirect are developing

a script from this book by Jameson Hunter


There are many commercial whale-watching operations on both the humpback's summer and winter ranges:

North Atlantic North Pacific Southern Hemisphere 



New England, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, the northern St. Lawrence River, the Snaefellsnes peninsula in the west of Iceland California, Alaska, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia Antarctica, Bahía Solano and Nuquí in Colombia 



Samaná Province of the Dominican Republic, the Bay of Biscay France, Hawaii, Baja, the Bahía de Banderas off Puerto Vallarta Sydney, Byron Bay north of Sydney, Hervey Bay north of Brisbane, North and East of Cape Town, New Zealand, the Tongan islands, 

As with other cetacean species, however, a mother whale is generally extremely protective of her infant, and places herself between any boat and her calf before moving quickly away from the vessel. Skilled tour operators avoid stressing the mother.




The Aleutian Islands - Humpback feeding ground



Famous humpbacks




A presumably albino humpback whale that travels up and down the east coast of Australia has become famous in the local media, on account of its extremely rare all-white appearance. Migaloo is the only known all-white humpback whale in the world. First sighted in 1991 and believed to be 3–5 years old at that time, Migaloo is a word for "white fella" from one of the languages of the Aboriginals, the Indigenous Australians. Speculation about Migaloo's sex was resolved in October 2004 when researchers from Southern Cross University collected sloughed skin samples from Migaloo as he migrated past Lennox Head, and subsequent genetic analysis of the samples proved he is a male. Because of the intense interest, environmentalists feared that he was becoming distressed by the number of boats following him each day. In response, the Queensland and New South Wales governments introduce legislation each year to create a 500 m (1600 ft) exclusion zone around the whale. Recent close up pictures have shown Migaloo to have skin cancer and/or skin cysts as a result of his lack of protection from the sun.

In 2006, a white calf was spotted with a normal humpback mother in Byron Bay, New South Wales.


A dead beached humpback whale, California


A dead beached humpback whale, California

Humphrey the Whale

One of the most notable humpback whales is Humphrey the Whale, twice-rescued by The Marine Mammal Center and other concerned groups in California. In 1985, Humphrey swam into San Francisco Bay and then up the Sacramento River towards Rio Vista. Five years later, Humphrey returned and became stuck on a mudflat in San Francisco Bay immediately north of Sierra Point below the view of onlookers from the upper floors of the Dakin Building. He was pulled off the mudflat with a large cargo net and the help of the Coast Guard. Both times he was successfully guided back to the Pacific Ocean using a "sound net" in which people in a flotilla of boats made unpleasant noises behind the whale by banging on steel pipes, a Japanese fishing technique known as "oikami." At the same time, the attractive sounds of humpback whales preparing to feed were broadcast from a boat headed towards the open ocean. Since leaving the San Francisco Bay in 1990 Humphrey has been seen only once, at the Farallon Islands in 1991.





Like Moby Dick, Kulo Luna is a fictional animal in the book of the same name. In Herman Melvilles's book, the antagonist is a giant sperm whale of the same name. In Jameson Hunter's book, the antagonist is a Japanese whaling cartel. In the days of Moby Dick, whaling was neither immoral nor illegal. Times have changed. Having nearly wiped them out, the vast majority of humans are actively protecting whales.


Whereas Moby Dick is set in the 1850s, Kulo Luna is set slightly in the future. The human protagonist captains a robot solar powered boat named SolarNavigator, seen at the foot of this page. The boat is the subject of a real autonomous research project for 2013. The story is not that far moved from reality in that the Japanese still hunt whales and there are many organisations trying to prevent them from killing these fabulous animals.








Which way now?

Environmentalists hope to save the whales - again


Humpback whale songs



Humpback Whale drawing



Japan backs Iceland's whaling decision Seattle Post Intelligencer - 18 Oct 2006
TOKYO -- Major pro-whaling nation Japan on Wednesday welcomed Iceland's decision to resume commercial whaling, saying Iceland's catch won't "endanger the whale ...

Iceland whaling decision condemned

Greenpeace 'disappointed' by Iceland's whaling plans ABC Online

Moves begin on Iceland's whaling BBC News

Monsters and - Radio New Zealand


Greens dismayed at Iceland whaling decision (press release), New Zealand - 17 Oct 2006 News that Iceland is to begin commercial whaling after a 20-year hiatus is being greeted with dismay by Green Party Conservation Spokesperson Metiria Turei. ...


Iceland to Resume Commercial Whaling  Los Angeles Times, CA - 17 Oct 2006
REYKJAVIK, Iceland -- Iceland said Tuesday it would resume commercial whaling after a nearly two-decade moratorium, defying a worldwide ban on hunting the ...


Green warrior to come to Iceland IcelandReview, Iceland - 20-10-06
... According to RÚV, the US government is also opposed to Iceland resuming commercial whaling and has the power to block all imports from Iceland to USA. ...


Today's Scoop Just Politics News Summary 17 Oct 2006 (press release), New Zealand - commercial whaling administered by the International Whaling Commission. See... Greens dismayed at Iceland whaling decision


Update: Finnair strike expected to continue next week International Herald Tribune, France -  hours ago
... "We have received several e-mails from people saying they have decided not to visit Iceland as long as Iceland is conducting whaling," said Thorunn ...


Tharp She Gets Shot! The Return of Whaling in Iceland    19 Oct 2006

Plenty Magazine, NY -  which Iceland’s whales have been protected from hunters came to an end on Tuesday, when the country’s lawmakers voted to resume commercial whaling in the ...


Whaling is affecting tourism IcelandReview, Iceland - 19 Oct 2006
... of Swiss travel agency Baldinger Reisen AG sent a written statement to yesterday, expressing his concerns about Iceland resuming whaling. ...


Iceland, Whales, Politics  FiNS Magazine, Singapore - 18 Oct 2006
... For a good overview on the Iceland decision and the issues associated with commercial whaling in general, see this recent article in the Guardian. ...


Iceland to resume commercial whaling after almost 2 decades USA Today 17-10-06
Critics say the "scientific" whaling practiced by Japan and Iceland is a sham. Norway ignores the moratorium altogether and openly conducts commercial whaling.


Iceland's Whaling Comeback - Preparations for the Resumption of ...

The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS) is the leading international charity dedicated solely to the worldwide conservation and welfare of all ... allweb/B2460680BC28D8F480256D4A0040D97B


BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Moves begin on Iceland's whaling

Iceland's ambassador to Britain is summoned to explain his country's return to commercial



Humpback whale sculpture made from bread


A 1/100th scale sculpture of a humpback whale made of white bread, 

which, unfortunately cracks a lot when drying out.



BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Iceland bids to resume whaling

Iceland reveals its plans to catch whales again for the first time since 1989, despite the international whaling moratorium.


Iceland Whaling v/s Whale watching. Whaling v/s Whale watching.

The most commonly used argument in Iceland is that whaling must be resumed before the whales start ... Yearly report on Iceland whale watching industry: ... 



My opinion: Iceland's reasons for scientific whaling are FUBAR and if we can ... I wonder how many of you criticising Iceland's whaling have actually read ...


Stop Icelandic whaling

Stop Icelandic Whaling: Arctic Sunrise Expedition 2005, Stop Icelandic Whaling: Arctic ... tourism in Iceland IF Iceland discontinues whaling. One Icelandic ...


Greenpeace 'disappointed' by Iceland's whaling plans. 19/10/2006

Greenpeace says it is very disappointed Iceland has decided to resume commercial whaling Iceland has authorised an annual hunt of 30 minke and nine of the ...


Earth Island Institute

Iceland's whaling proposal threatens its growing whale-watching industry. In 2002, more than 62000 people went whale-watching in Iceland. ...


Japan backs Iceland's whaling decision - Yahoo! News

Major pro-whaling nation Japan on Wednesday welcomed Iceland's decision to resume commercial whaling, saying Iceland's catch won't "endanger the whale ... ap_on_re_eu/japan_iceland_whaling


Whales on the Net - Iceland Whaling Protest Letter

I am appalled to learn that Iceland has decided to resume commercial whaling under the guise of scientific research, and plans to kill 38 minke whales this ... 




Kulo Luna, the amazing humpback whale




Humpback whale high broach








World's first autonomous robot boat

Solarnavigator is a whale friendly trimaran with an extremely efficient

active hull that runs on clean renewable solar power - a boat in harmony with nature.












Guinea Pig




Prairie Dog










Such as frogs (class: Amphibia)


As in Earthworms (phyla: Annelida)


Neanderthals, Homo Erectus (Extinct)


Spiders (class: Arachnida)


Such as Eagles, Albatross (class: Aves)


such as Whales & Dolphins ( order:Cetacea)


such as crabs (subphyla: Crustacea)


Tyranosaurus Rex, Brontosaurus (Extinct)


As in Starfish (phyla: Echinodermata)


Sharks, Tuna (group: Pisces)


Homo Sapiens  THE BRAIN


Ants, (subphyla: Uniramia class: Insecta)


Which includes PLANTS non- animal life


Warm blooded animals (class: Mammalia)


Such as Kangaroos (order: Marsupialia)


Such as octopus (phyla: Mollusca)


Trees -


Gorillas, Chimpanzees (order: Primates)


As in Crocodiles, Snakes (class: Reptilia)


such as Rats, Mice (order: Rodentia)


As in Amoeba, plankton (phyla: protozoa)











Bishop, Orange

Blue Bird



Corella, Long-Billed

Crane, African Crowned



Egret, Cattle


Fishers Lovebird

Goose, Egyptian

Guinea Fowl, Helmeted

Hornbill, Wreathed
Hornbill, Red-Billed
Hottentot, Teal

House Martin
Ibis, Hadada

Ibis, Sacred
Kite, Black


Lapwing Plover

Lilac-Breasted Roller






Parrot, Amazon








Roller, Blue-Bellied


Spoonbill African





Vulture, Griffon

Weaver, Taveta Golden











Army Ant



Bulldog Ant





Damsel Fly

Death Watch Beetle


Dung Beetle








Leafcutter Ant


Mantis, Preying





Praying Mantis

Scarab Beetle

Stag Beetle

Stick Insect



Water Boatman

Wood Ant















  Blueplanet Productions  2014 - 2016

The Adventures of John Storm:  KULO LUNA™ - The $Billion Dollar Whale © BUH Ltd MMXIII



The Billion Dollar  Whale



35mm Anamorphic 3D*

to HD DVD Blu-Ray


20 to 1*



110 minutes



39 weeks



11 weeks



15 weeks




A. Pre-production unit costs


L. Travel / hotel accommodation


B. Above the line costs -prod execs


M. Publicity / screenings


C. Crew - Main unit


N. Legal, accounting. ins (Int, film guarantors)


D. Crew - 2nd & 3rd units


O. Contingency @ 10%


E. Cast + options


P. Producer's / Director's dividends (%)


F. Computer graphics (CGI)


Q. Distribution - Direct (costs)


G. Art department


R. Profit projected on sales (before corp. tax)


H. Equipment


S. Finance / Interest (5 yrs)


ILocation / transport / catering


T. Total target film cost (production & distribution)


J. Stock, lab, video transfers


U. Studio property / equipment (invest)


K. Post production








Cost of Sales


Net Profit*

*Subj. corp. taxes 



  Blueplanet Universal Productions  KULO LUNA™ © BH Ltd MMXIII


Blueplanet Holdings Ltd trade mark logo





This website is copyright © 1991- 2013 Electrick Publications. All rights reserved. The bird logo and names Solar Navigator and Blueplanet Ecostar are trademarks ™.  The Blueplanet vehicle configuration is registered ®.  All other trademarks hereby acknowledged and please note that this project should not be confused with the Australian: 'World Solar Challenge'™which is a superb road vehicle endurance race from Darwin to Adelaide.  Max Energy Limited is an educational charity working hard to promote world peace.