BARCLAYS PLC

Barclays is a large international banking group famed for takeovers and more

 

 

 

Antony Jenkins Barclays Bank Group Chief Executive

 

Antony Jenkins Barclays Bank Group Chief Executive

 

 

Barclays is a British multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in London. It is a universal bank with operations in retail, wholesale and investment banking, as well as wealth management, mortgage lending and credit cards. It has operations in over 50 countries and territories and has around 48 million customers. As of 31 December 2011 Barclays had total assets of US$2.42 trillion, the seventh-largest of any bank worldwide.

Barclays is organised within these business clusters: Corporate and Investment Banking, Wealth and Investment Management; and Retail and Business Banking. The Corporate and Investment Banking, Wealth and Investment Management cluster comprises three business units: Corporate banking; Investment banking; and Wealth and investment management. The Retail and Business Banking cluster comprises four business units: Africa Retail and Business Banking (including Absa Group); Barclaycard (credit card and loan provision); Europe Retail and Business Banking; and UK Retail and Business Banking.

Barclays traces its origins to a goldsmith banking business established in the City of London in 1690. James Barclay became a partner in the business in 1736. In 1896 several banks in London and the English provinces, including Backhouse's Bank and Gurney's Bank, united as a joint-stock bank under the name Barclays and Co. Over the following decades Barclays expanded to become a nationwide bank. In 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash dispenser. Barclays has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including of London, Provincial and South Western Bank in 1918, British Linen Bank in 1919, Mercantile Credit in 1975, the Woolwich in 2000 and the North American operations of Lehman Brothers in 2008.

Barclays has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £22 billion as of 23 December 2011, the 22nd-largest company of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Since at least 2008 Barclays has been systematically assisting clients to avoid huge amounts of tax they should be liable for across multiple jurisdictions.

 

According to their website, Barclays provide corporate banking services to UK businesses with an annual turnover of over £5 million, and to large local companies, financial institutions and multinationals in non-UK markets.

 

 

Barclays Bank Group former Chief Executive: Robert Diamond

 

Barclays Bank Group former Chief Executive: Robert Diamond

 

 

FEBRUARY 2013 BBC NEWS - LONDON INTER BANK LENDING RATE: LIBOR

 

Libor, the London inter-bank lending rate, is considered to be one of the most crucial interest rates in finance. It underpins trillions of pounds worth of loans and financial contracts.

So, when Barclays was fined £290m in June last year after some of its derivatives traders were found to have attempted to rig this key rate, already weak public confidence in banks was harmed further.

The scandal led to the resignation of both Barclays chief executive Bob Diamond and chairman Marcus Agius. Here are some of the key dates in the scandal:

2005

As early as 2005 there was evidence Barclays had tried to manipulate dollar Libor and Euribor (the eurozone's equivalent of Libor) rates at the request of its derivatives traders and other banks.

Misconduct was widespread, involving staff in New York, London and Tokyo as well as external traders.

Between January 2005 and June 2009, Barclays derivatives traders made a total of 257 requests to fix Libor and Euribor rates, according to a report by the FSA.

One Barclays trader told a trader from another bank in relation to three-month dollar Libor: "duuuude... what's up with ur guys 34.5 3m fix... tell him to get it up!".

2007

At the onset of the financial crisis in September 2007 with the collapse of Northern Rock, liquidity concerns drew public scrutiny towards Libor. Barclays manipulated Libor submissions to give a healthier picture of the bank's credit quality and its ability to raise funds. A lower submission would deflect concerns it had problems borrowing cash from the markets.

Barclays' Libor submissions were at the higher end of the range of contributing banks, and prompted media speculation about the true picture of the bank's risk and credit profile. 

Senior treasury managers instructed submitters to reduce Libor to avoid negative publicity, saying Barclays should not "stick its head above the parapet", according to the FSA report.

From as early as 28 August, the New York Fed said it had received mass-distribution emails that suggested that Libor submissions were being set unrealistically low by the banks.

On 28 November, a senior submitter at Barclays wrote in an internal email that "Libors are not reflecting the true cost of money", according to the FSA.

In December, a Barclays compliance officer contacted the UK banking lobby group British Bankers' Association (BBA) and the FSA and described "problematic actions" by other banks, saying they appeared to be understating their Libor submissions, according to US regulator the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC).

On 6 December, a Barclays compliance officer contacted the FSA, according to the FSA report, to express concern about the Libor rates being submitted by other banks, but did not inform the FSA that its own submissions were incorrect, instead saying that they were "within a reasonable range".

The FSA said that the same compliance officer then told Barclays senior management that he told the FSA "we have consistently been the highest (or one of the two highest) rate provider in recent weeks, but we're justifiably reluctant to go higher given our recent media experience", and that the FSA "agreed that the approach we've been adopting seems sensible in the circumstances".

In early December, the CFTC said that the Barclays employee responsible for submitting the bank's dollar Libor rates contacted it to complain that Barclays was not setting "honest" rates.

The employee emailed his supervisor about his concerns, saying: "My worry is that we (both Barclays and the contributor banle panel) are being seen to be contributing patently false rates.

"We are therefore being dishonest by definition and are at risk of damaging our reputation in the market and with the regulators. Can we discuss urgently please?"

On 6 December a Barclays compliance officer contacted the FSA about concerns over the levels that other banks were setting their US Libor rate. This was made after a submitter flagged to compliance his concern about mis-reporting the rate. Compliance informed the FSA that "we have consistently been the highest (or one of the two highest) rate provider in recent weeks, but we're justifiably reluctant to go higher given our recent media experience".

He also reported that the FSA "agreed that the approach we've been adopting seems sensible in the circumstances, so I suggest we maintain status quo for now".

In a phone call on 17 December a Barclays employee told the New York Fed that the Libor rate was being fixed at a level that was unrealistically low.

 

 

 

 

2008

On 11 April a New York Fed official queried a Barclays employee in detail as to the extent of problems with Libor reporting. The Barclays employee explained that Barclays was underreporting its rate to avoid the stigma associated with being an outlier with respect to its Libor submissions, relative to other participating banks

On 16 April, the Wall Street Journal published a report that questioned the integrity of Libor.

Around this time, according to the CFTC, a senior Barclays treasury manager informed the BBA in a phone call that Barclays had not been reporting accurately. But he defended the bank, saying it was not the worst offender: "We're clean, but we're dirty-clean, rather than clean-clean." 

"No one's clean-clean," the BBA representative responded.

According to the FSA, following the Wall Street Journal report, Barclays received communications from the BBA expressing concern about the accuracy of its Libor submissions. The BBA said if the media reports were true, it was unacceptable.

On 17 April, a manager made comments in a call to the FSA that Barclays had been understating its Libor submissions: "We did stick our head above the parapet last year, got it shot off, and put it back down again. So, to the extent that, um, the Libors have been understated, are we guilty of being part of the pack? You could say we are... Um, so I would, I would sort of express us maybe as not clean clean, but clean in principle."

In late April officials from the New York Federal Reserve Bank - which oversees the banks in New York - met to determine what steps might be taken to address the problems with Libor, and notified other US agencies.

On 6 May the New York Fed briefed senior officials from the US Treasury in detail, and thereafter sent a further report on problems with Libor.

The New York Fed officials also met with BBA officials to express their concerns and establish in greater depth the flaws in the Libor-setting process.

On 29 May, Barclays agreed internally to tell the media that the bank had always quoted accurate and fair Libors and had acted "in defiance of the market" rather than submitting incorrect rates, according to the FSA.

In early June, Tim Geithner, who was the head of the New York Fed at the time, sent Bank of England governor Sir Mervyn King, a list of proposals to to try to tackle Libor's credibility problem.

They included the need "to eliminate the incentive to misreport" by protecting the identity of the banks that submitted the highest and lowest rates.

Sir Mervyn and Mr Geithner, now US Treasury Secretary, had discussed the matter at a central bankers' gathering a few days earlier.

Shortly afterwards, Sir Mervyn confirmed to Mr Geithner that he had passed the New York Fed's recommendations onto the BBA soon afterwards.

Spring: The BBA prepares a review of Libor, later described by the Bank of England's deputy governor Paul Tucker as "tremendously important because of the eroding credibility of Libor". The Bank wanted Libor to reflect actual rates, not subjective submissions. Mr Tucker rang the banks stressing the review should be carried out by senior representatives, not the junior people normally sent to sit on the BBA committee.

On 10 June, the BBA published a consultation paper seeking comments about proposals to modify Libor. "The BBA proposes to explore options for avoiding the stigma whilst maintaining transparency," it said. Barclays contributed comments but avoided mentioning its own rate submissions.

On 5 August, the BBA published a feedback statement on its consultation paper, and concluded that the existing process for submissions would be retained.

In September, following the collapse of Lehman Brothers, the Bank of England had a conversation with a senior Barclays official, in which the Bank raised questions about Barclays' liquidity position and its relatively high Libor submissions.

On 13 October, the UK government announces plans to pump billions of pounds of taxpayers' money into three major banks, effectively part-nationalising Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), Lloyds TSB and HBOS.

A week later, on 21 and 22 October, Paul Tucker and senior government official Sir Jeremy Heywood discussed why Libor in the UK was not falling as fast as in the US, despite government action. Sir Jeremy also asked why Barclays' borrowing costs were so high. "A lot of speculation in the market over what they are up to," he says in an email.

In subsequent evidence to the Treasury Select Committee Mr Tucker later suggests there was widespread concern at this time that Barclays was "next in line" for emergency government help. He was in regular contact with Bob Diamond, emails show.

On 24 October a Barclays employee tells a New York Fed official in a telephone call that the Libor rate is "absolute rubbish".

On 29 October Paul Tucker and Bob Diamond - head of Barclays' investment bank at the time - speak on the phone. According to Mr Diamond's account of the conversation, emailed to colleagues the next day, Mr Tucker said senior Whitehall officials wanted to know why Barclays was "always at the top end of Libor pricing".

According to the Barclays chief executive, Mr Tucker said the rates "did not always need to be the case that we appeared as high as we have recently". Mr Tucker later said that gave the "wrong impression" of their conversation and said he did not encourage Barclays to manipulate its Libor submissions.

Following this discussion with the Bank of England, Barclays instructed Libor submitters to lower the rate to be "within the pack".

On 17 November, the BBA issued a draft document about how Libor rates should be set and required banks to have their rate submission procedures audited as part of compliance. The final paper would be circulated on 16 July 2009.

 

 

 

Barclays were the first bank in the world to install a cash machine. The idea of out-of-hours cash distribution developed from banker's needs in Asia (Japan), Europe (Sweden and the United Kingdom) and North America (the United States). In the US patent record, Luther George Simjian has been credited with developing a "prior art device". Specifically his 132nd patent (US3079603) was first filed on 30 June 1960 (and granted 26 February 1963). The roll-out of this machine, called Bankograph, was delayed by a couple of years, due in part to Simjian's Reflectone Electronics Inc. being acquired by Universal Match Corporation. An experimental Bankograph was installed in New York City in 1961 by the City Bank of New York, but removed after six months due to the lack of customer acceptance. The Bankograph was an automated envelope deposit machine (accepting coins, cash and cheques) and did not have cash dispensing features.

In simultaneous and independent efforts and at the request of bankers, engineers in Japan, Sweden, and Britain developed the first cash machines during the early 1960s. The first of these that was put into use was by Barclays Bank in Enfield Town in north London, United Kingdom, on 27 June 1967. This machine was inaugurated by English comedy actor Reg Varney. This instance of the invention is credited to John Shepherd-Barron of printing firm De La Rue, who was awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year Honours. This design used paper cheques issued by a teller or cashier, marked with carbon-14 for machine readability and security, which in a latter model were matched with a personal identification number (PIN). Shepherd-Barron stated; "It struck me there must be a way I could get my own money, anywhere in the world or the UK. I hit upon the idea of a chocolate bar dispenser, but replacing chocolate with cash."

 

 

2009

On 2 November the BBA circulated guidelines for all contributor banks on setting Libor rates in the same manner. Barclays made no changes to its systems to take account of the BBA guidelines.

In December Barclays started to improve its systems and controls but ignored the BBA's guidelines. Until 2009 the bank did not have a formal Chinese wall between the derivatives team and the submitters.

2010

In June, Barclays circulated an email to submitters that set out "fundamental rules" that required them, for example, to report to compliance any attempts to influence Libor submissions either externally or internally. It also prohibited communication with external traders "that could be be seen as an attempt to agree on or impact Libor levels".

2011

In late 2011, Royal Bank of Scotland sacked four people for their alleged roles in the Libor-fixing scandal.

 

 

 

 


2012

On 27 June, Barclays admitted to misconduct. The UK's FSA imposed a £59.5m penalty. The US Department of Justice and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) imposed fines worth £102m and £128m respectively, forcing Barclays to pay a total of around £290m.

On 29 June, chief executive Bob Diamond said he would attend a Commons Treasury Select Committee and that the bank would co-operate with authorities. However, he insisted he would not resign.

The same day, Bank of England governor Sir Mervyn King called for a "cultural change", adding: "The idea that one can base the future calculation of Libor on the idea that 'my word is my Libor' is now dead." He said implementing the Vickers banking reforms was the most important first step, but ruled out a Leveson-style inquiry into the banks.

On 2 July, Barclays chairman Marcus Agius resigned and also tendered his resignation as chairman of the BBA. Mr Diamond said in a letter to staff that he would "get to the bottom" of what happened.

Prime Minister David Cameron announced a parliamentary review of the banking sector, to be headed by the chairman of the Treasury Select Committee, Andrew Tyrie. The review should ensure that the UK had the "toughest and most transparent rules of any major financial sector", Mr Cameron said.

On 3 July, Barclays chief executive Bob Diamond resigned, saying that the external pressure on the bank risked "damaging the franchise".

He was followed by Barclays chief operating officer Jerry del Missier, who resigned the same day.

On 4 July, Mr Diamond faced a three-hour grilling from MPs on the Treasury Committee over the scandal, during which he described the behaviour of those responsible as "reprehensible" and said it had made him physically ill. The Committee subsequently accused him of giving evidence that fell short of its expected standards.

On 5 July, credit rating agency Moody's lowered its rating outlook on Barclays from stable to negative.

On 6 July, the Serious Fraud Office launched a criminal investigation into Libor manipulation.

Deputy governor of the Bank of England Paul Tucker gave evidence to the Treasury on 9 July, insisting he had not leant on Barclays to lower its submissions, nor had he been asked to do so by the government.

On 16 July, Barclays chief operating officer Jerry del Missier told MPs he was instructed by Diamond to lower the bank's Libor submissions. He also told them he believed the Bank of England alone instructed Barclays to lower them.

On 17 July, US Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke told a Senate committee that the Libor system was "structurally flawed" said that he still did not have full confidence in the system.

Earlier, the governor of the Bank of England, Sir Mervyn King, told the Treasury Committee that UK authorities had been worried about senior management at Barclays, even before the recent Libor scandal broke. Sir Mervyn said Barclays had sailed "close to the wind" too often.

On 31 July, Deutsche Bank confirmed that a "limited number" of staff were involved in the Libor rate-rigging scandal. However, it said an internal inquiry had cleared senior management of taking part.

On 10 August, the FSA published its initial findings on what needs to be done to reform the Libor rate-setting system. The FSA's managing director, Martin Wheatley, said trust in Libor "needs to be repaired" and that the current system was no longer "viable".

On 16 August, it was announced that seven banks including Barclays, HSBC and RBS are to face legal questioning in the US. The other banks to receive the subpoenas from the attorney generals of New York and Connecticut were Citigroup, Deutsche Bank, JPMorgan and UBS.

On 18 August, the Treasury Committee published its report into the Libor rate-fixing scandal. The MPs blamed bank bosses for "disgraceful" behavior. They demanded changes including higher fines for firms that failed to co-operate with regulators, examination of gaps in criminal law, and a much stronger governance framework at the Bank of England. The committee also criticised the evidence of former Barclays boss Bob Diamond, saying it had been "highly selective". In response, he said he had "answered every question that was put to me truthfully, candidly and based on information available to me".

On 25 September, the British Bankers' Association (BBA), the organisation that sets the Libor rate, said it would accept losing the role. Its statement came ahead of the FSA's final report on how to reform Libor, due to be published on 28 September.

On 28 September, the FSA confirmed that the BBA would no longer administer Libor, and would be replaced by a data provider (an organisation such as Bloomberg or Reuters) or a regulated exchange. The report also said that the Libor system was broken and suggested its complete overhaul, including criminal prosecutions for those who try to manipulate it. The regulator also suggested basing Libor calculations on actual rates being used, rather than estimates currently provided by banks.

On 11 December, the UK's Serious Fraud Office said three men had been arrested in connection with its continuing investigations into Libor.

On 19 December, Swiss bank UBS is fined a total of $1.5bn (£940m) by US, UK and Swiss regulators for attempting to manipulate Libor. It agrees to pay $1.2bn in combined fines to the US Department of Justice and the Commodities Futures Trading Commission, £160m to the UK's Financial Services Authority, and 59m Swiss Francs to the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority.

 

 

 

The Barclays Asia Trophy has been held biennially since 2003 and is the only Premier League-affiliated competition to take place outside England. This year the Barclays Asia Trophy will see debut appearances from Arsenal and Stoke City, while Everton appear in the Tournament for the first time since 2005. The Singapore Select XI is the first team from Singapore to compete in the Barclays Asia Trophy. It will consist mainly of players from the Singapore National Team.

 

 

2013

On 10 January, the BBC's business editor, Robert Peston, discloses that RBS is in talks with UK and US regulators over the size of fines to settle the Libor investigation. He also warns that the resignation of a senior executive was possible as part of a settlement.

A week later, on 17 January, the new chief of Barclays, Antony Jenkins, tells staff to sign up to a new code of conduct - or leave the firm - as part of an attempt to ensure that scandals such as Libor-fixing never happen again.

On 25 January, a judge refuses a request from 104 senior Barclays staff for anonymity during a court case. Guardian Care Homes had accused the bank of mis-selling it an interest rate hedging product linked to Libor.

On 31 January, Deutsche Bank tells investors that it may face lawsuits related to the manipulation of Libor, as well as other recent scandals. Therefore, the bank said, it was setting aside 1bn euros to cover potential litigation.

Amid speculation that RBS was close to a Libor settlement, on 2 February the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne says that any fines imposed on the bank should be met by bankers themselves, not taxpayers.

 

BARCLAYS CONTACTS

 

Please direct your queries to:

Barclays Bank PLC
1 Churchill Place
London
E14 5HP

 

0800 015 4242

 

newclient.team@barclays.com


internetsecurity@barclays.co.uk

 

 

 

 

Santander Cycles is a public bicycle hire scheme in London, United Kingdom. The scheme's bicycles are popularly known as Boris Bikes, after Boris Johnson, who was the Mayor of London when the scheme was launched.

The operation of the scheme is contracted by Transport for London to Serco. The scheme is sponsored, with Santander UK being the main sponsor from April 2015. Barclays Bank was the first sponsor from 2010 to March 2015, when the service was branded as Barclays Cycle Hire.

Credit for developing and enacting the scheme has been a source of debate. Johnson has taken credit for the plan,[ although the initial concept was announced by his predecessor Ken Livingstone, during the latter's term in office. Livingstone has said that the programme would herald a "cycling and walking transformation in London" and Johnson said that he "hoped the bikes would become as common as black cabs and red buses in the capital".

A study showed cyclists using the scheme are three times less likely to be injured per trip than cyclists in London as a whole, possibly due to motorists giving cycle hire users more road space than they do other cyclists. Moreover, recent customer research showed that 49 per cent of Barclays Cycle Hire members say that the scheme has prompted them to start cycling in London.

During the 2012 Olympic Games, a record of 47,105 cycle hires were made in a single day.

 

 

 

BANKING ERRORS FROM MISCOMMUNICATIONS ETC

 

Banks sometimes wishes to change methods of trading to get out of providing services to clubs and not for profit organisations. They might do this despite the obligations to any such organisation or individual.

 

It seems that this is a widespread practice, not limited to any particular bank, but in this case we are looking at one case where the wishes of the account holders were not respected.

 

 

Financial Ombudsman Service                                                                               Recorded Post

Exchange Tower

London, E14 9SR

                                                                                                                                    2 March 2015 

 

Dear Sir or Madam:

 

 

BARCLAYS BANK - WRONGFUL ACCOUNT CLOSURE

We (collectively) are the trustees of a historic building that we are doing our best to raise money to restore. One of our trustees had an account that we planned to use to accept monies from our fund raising projects, one of which is a publication that we want to release as an e-book.

 

The account is/was: “Generating Works Restoration Association,” account number 80170925. The sort code is/was 20-27-92. This is in connection with an early electricity generating building dating from 1909.

 

Barclays bank knew of our intentions for this account, but one day they wrote to us telling us they would close the account unless they heard from us to keep the account open. We duly wrote to Barclays Bank by recorded delivery and well within their stated timeframe, explaining why we needed the account and to please keep it open.

 

Despite this, Barclays closed the account. Please see copies of our letters dated the 13th of December 2013 and 4th of December 2014. Please also see copy of Barclay’s reply to us dated the 11th of December 2014.

 

In Barclays’ most recent letter they admit closing the account in error and offer us £126 in compensation. They go on to say that we should attend one of their branches to fill in a “Re-Open Closed Account Form”. We knew this was poor advice from previous efforts along those lines but felt obliged to give it another go. Thinking that perhaps they’d made special arrangements.

 

Thus, on the 26th of February 2015 one of our trustees took time out again to attempt to re-open the account, at the Eastbourne branch. He was kept waiting for over 30 minutes and finally when he was seen, the lady trying to sort this out (Debbie Hayes) was also bounced from pillar to post on the telephone, finally coming to the conclusion that it was not possible to re-open the closed account, as per the advice in their letter of the 11th of December 2014. Full marks though to Ms Hayes for trying.

 

As before, Barclays wanted us to open a different type of account, being much more convoluted to do so and not the same service in any event. We were very happy with the account we enjoyed previously for many years, we might add without hiccup.

 

Now we have a cheque from Barclays for £126 that we cannot cash, because we cannot re-open our original account. The fact is though that the bank contracted with us to provide a service and breached their own terms and conditions. This has caused us loss in the form of the time of our trustees (take time out from work) in having to discuss this and arrange for replies, etc, and has also caused us to keep on hold the release of the publication we advised the bank of, pending the re-opening of our account. Thinking that it would speed things along, we never asked for consequential losses at that time, as you will see.

 

We have come to you with this complaint well within the six months time limit, so could we please ask you to try to resolve this matter for us, without costing any of our trustees more time than is absolutely necessary to restore our original account. We are sure that in the digital age, that any well-organised bank can sort this from head office within minutes of opening their system. We imagine, just as easily as they closed the account.

 

Whereas, at the moment they seem determined to put us to additional trouble and to a very different type of account, when the mistake is theirs, not ours.

 

If for any reason our account still cannot be restored, could we then ask you to look at the issue of consequential loss, something that the bank have so far not been asked to consider.

 

We hope that with the Ombudsman looking into this matter that it might finally reach a satisfactory conclusion.

 

Thanking you in anticipation.

 

 

Yours faithfully,

 

 

 

for Lime Park Heritage Trust

 

 

 

 

 

As a result of the communications with the FSO, the complainants were told to expect a revised offer from Barclays. They waited patiently but heard nothing from the bank, despite gentle reminders.

 

The bank opened an account in principle, but there are no funds in the account. Hence, monies have been taken illegally according to the Fraud Act 2006 - FRAUD BY ABUSE OF POSITION

Section 4 (1) (a) occupies a position in which he is expected to safeguard, or not to act against, the financial interests of another person, and (c) intends, by means of the abuse of that position -


(i) to make a gain for himself or another, or
(ii) to cause loss to another or to expose another to a risk of loss.

and Section 4 (2). A person may be regarded as having abused his position even though his conduct consisted of an omission rather than an act.

 

Having waited so long and not heard from this Bank, a further letter was sent to the Chairman, John McFarlane, in the hope that this matter might be put to rest, avoid having to raise the issue with the Police and/or the Financial Conduct Authority.

 

 

THE CHAIRMAN SEPT 2014 - Barclays has turned to John McFarlane to rebuild its relationship with shareholders, appointing the Scottish-born banker as its chairman.

 

 

 

CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER  - James Staley is the new CEO of Barclays Bank. James E. Staley has been appointed as Group Chief Executive Officer of Barclays. Mr Staley will take up his role, and join the Boards of Barclays PLC and Barclays Bank PLC as a Director, with effect from 1 December 2015.

 

 

LINKS & REFERENCE

 

Wikipedia Barclays

BBC News business Barclays LIBOR rate fixing scandal fines

Barclays Personal Banking

Home barclays

New York Times 2013 May 5 magazine Robert Diamonds next life

http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/

http://www.santander.co.uk/uk/index

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/05/magazine/robert-diamonds-next-life.html

http://www.barclays.co.uk/PersonalBanking/P1242557947640

http://www.home.barclays/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-18671255

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barclays

 


 

 

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STOCKS AND SHARES

SUMITOMO MITSUI BANK - Japan

SWISS BANK ACCOUNTS

TAX HAVENS

THAI FARMERS BANK - Thailand

THE AMERICAN DOLLAR

THE ARAB INVESTMENT COMPANY

THE CHINESE YUAN

THE DINAR

THE EURO

THE INDIAN RUPEE

THE JAPANESE YEN

THE POUND STERLING

THE RUSSIAN ROUBLE

THE SOUTH AFRICAN RAND

THE SWISS FRANC

TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE

TORONTO DOMINION BANK - Canada

TRUSTS

UBS AG - Switzerland

UNION BANK OF CALIFORNIA

US BANKCORP

VAT - VALUE ADDED TAX

VENTURE CAPITAL

VISA

WALL STREET

WELLS FARGO - US

WEST DEUTSCHE LANDESBANK - Germany

WESTPAC

WORLD BANK

WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

WOOLWICH

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Kulo Luna $billion dollar whale

When a pirate whaler kills a small humpback whale, her giant friend sinks the pirate ship to avenge the death, but is itself wounded. The pirates put a price on the whale's head, but an adventurer in an advanced solar powered boat races to beat the pirates and save the wounded animal. 

 

The $Billion Dollar Whale, Kulo Luna adventure novel by Jameson Hunter

 

A heartwarming action adventure: Pirate whalers V Conservationists, with an environmental message and a $Billion dollars riding on the winner. For release as an e-book in 2016 with hopes for a film in 2018.

 

 

  

 

This website is copyright © 2016 Electrick Publications. All rights reserved. The name Miss Ocean™ and Kulo Luna™ are trademarks.  The cover of the Kulo Luna novel is Copyright © Jameson Hunter Ltd.  All other trademarks hereby acknowledged.  Max Energy Limited is an educational charity working hard to promote world peace.