20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA

 

HOME | BIOLOGY | BOOKS | FILMS | GEOGRAPHY | HISTORY | INDEX | INVESTORS | MUSIC | NEWS | SOLAR BOATS | SPORT 

 

 

Walt Disney's fun, live-action adaptation of Jules Verne's classic science-fiction story features some of the best special effects produced in the 1950s. Captain Nemo, the commander of a futuristic submarine called the Nautilus, rescues the survivors of a shipwreck and takes them on an incredible journey far below the ocean's surface. They encounter numerous wonders of the sea, including an enormous squid which attacks the ship in the film's most unforgettable sequence.

 

 

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, DVD cover

 

 

Credits and Additional Info

 

 

Starring: 

Kirk Douglas, James Mason, Peter Lorre, Paul Lukas

Directed by: 

Richard Fleischer

Distributed by: 

Movies Unlimited

Rated: 

Not Rated

Run Time: 

127:00

Release Year: 

1954  

 

 

http://www.ifilm.com/

 

 

Based on the Jules Verne novel, the 1954 film, 20,000 Leagues under the Sea is set in 1850 and follows the investigation of Professor Pierre Arronax (Paul Lukas) and his assistant, Conseil (Peter Lorre) who are in search of a sea monster that has been blamed for the loss of several ships. When their own ship is attacked by "the monster", only this pair and a harpooner, Ned Land (Kirk Douglas) survive. They escape in a small boat and drift.  See full story text and links at foot of this page.
 

Later, while easing through fog, they encounter "the monster", which they learn is a steel submarine called the Nautilus. The survivors are quickly captured and imprisoned on the ship by its commander, Captain Nemo (James Mason). They learn that Nemo is an advanced mind, hateful of all warfare which he seeks to eliminate by destroying the implements of war. He built the Nautilus to interdict military shipping and plans to further the cause through some other, unspecified action.


 

Captain Nemo is confronted by Ned

 

Walt Disney's original film cast - 

James Mason, Kirk Douglas, Peter Lorre and Paul Lukas

 

 

Ned and Nemo are constantly at odds with each other. During this time, Nemo shows incredible tolerance with his prisoner. His tolerance soon pays off.  During a storm, while the submarine cruises safely below the surface, a giant squid latches onto the vessel, forcing it to surface. The crew emerge with harpoons and do battle with the monster in what is truly one of the most memorable scenes in all film history. Nemo is almost killed when the squid snatches him in its tentacle and drags him under the water but is saved by Ned who dives in and cuts the captain free.
 

In the end, Captain Nemo is tracked to his island stronghold, a fortress of advanced technology. British warships move to take the island but Nemo, rushing moments before the troops seize his compound, sets the power generators to overload. His masterpiece of technology, along with all of his scientific advances, erupt in a huge blast. While running back to the Nautilus, Nemo is shot. Badly wounded, he staggers onto the submarine which slips away. Much to the horror of the survivors, Nemo has ordered the Nautilus to lock itself into a terminal dive. As Nemo dies, the submarine dies around him. His loyal crew intends to share is fate.

 

 



Yet, Ned isn't ready to just accept death so easily. He manages to get the submarine back to the surface and the three of them, along with a pet seal Ned adopted, burst onto the Nautilus' longboat and escape to the British fleet. As they depart, the Nautilus slips under the waters behind him, lost for all time .... or so it seems.

In its 1961 sequel, "Mysterious Island", we learn that Nemo survived the wound and is still alive. Set in 1865 just at the close of the American civil war, the tale begins with a group of escapees from a military prison camp led by Capt. Cyrus Harding (Michael Craig). They escape in an observation balloon only to be blown far out to sea. As the balloon fails them, they are dropped onto an uncharted island far out to sea inhabited by giant-sized creatures.  Their rescue soon proves to be a fight for survival.


 

Later, a passing ship is attacked by pirates and wrecked. Two women, Lady Mary Fairchild (Joan Greenwood) and her niece, Elena (Beth Rogan) are washed ashore. With the new additions, the group soon creates a home in a cave and begins to build a new life which is briefly interrupted with the return of the pirates who pelt the island with cannon fire until their ship suddenly jolts and then sinks. After that, life returns to normal on the island and they build a small community until they make two important discoveries.

 


 Divers leave the Nautilus for explore the ocean

 

 

First, the island is increasing in volcanic activity and might not survive.  Second, Captain Nemo (Herbert Lom) and his missing submarine are hiding in a sea cavern on the island.  Nemo explains to the group that he once waged his own private campaign against the instruments of war but realized that his real target should have been the causes of war. To that end, he set his mind to fixing the basic problem of starvation. He learned to breed giant-sized animals from ordinary creatures. In this way, the food supply of the world could be multiplied and the reasons for conflict reduced. Yet he can't take this discovery away as the Nautilus has been damaged and can't survive a voyage far away from the island. Nemo also confirms that the island will soon destroy itself.

 

Faced with this danger, they come up with a brave plan to escape. Using equipment from the Nautilus, they will raise the sunken pirate ship by inflating the hot air balloon inside its hull, forcing the ship to the surface. They race to complete the underwater task, passing ancient ruins from some lost civilization, while above them, the volcano starts to spew fire and ash.

 

The plan succeeds and the ship rises to the surface.  Before he can gather his research and join them, Nemo is trapped as the sea cavern collapses, entombing the submarine.  Sorrowful, the survivors sail away from the island as it becomes a mass of molten lava.  Both 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea and Mysterious Island are good adventure stories that do a respectable job preserving the magic of Jules Verne's writing.

James Mason is masterful as Captain Nemo and brings dignity to the role that surpasses the book. Kirk Douglas's performance is a bit too campy and his interactions with the pet seal are a bit too fluffy for most viewers, however, he comes across as a bloke you can rely on in a crisis during the actions sequences.  Likewise, his song singing in the beginning of the film, mixed with his smiling and energetic portrayal of Ned, differ wildly from the hardened seaman of Jules Verne's novel.
 

The Nautilus submarine is superb and a great contribution by art director John Meehan. Its exterior is a steel monstrous beast, with two great eyes that shine menacingly as the submarine lances through the water. Underwater, it glides gracefully through the scenery like an noble fish. The interiors are well designed, providing the perfect period feel even through the advanced technology that allows it to be the superweapon against war. Concurrently, the brief glimpses of Nemo's island fit perfectly, hinting at advanced knowledge based on 1800s gadgets. You feel a real sense of loss when it is blown apart at the end of the film.

Mysterious Island continues the story in a way that is completely different than the first tale but still seems to fit. They are very different stories with very different styles. Ray Harryhausen's animations with the giant beasts are an absolute joy to watch. The movie is an adventure story but these creatures are the real stars. Captain Nemo is merely the linking pin between 20,000 Leagues under the Sea and this tale.

 

 

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea Jules Verne submarine

 



Both films engage in some rather silly commentaries about the evils of war.
They are simplistic in their approach to the causes of warfare and consequently waste the time explaining the background of Nemo's passion.  Mysterious Island is the larger violator in this arena, employing newspaper reporter Gideon Spilitt (Gary Merrill) to present Nemo's case and explain that he's not a madman who sent hundreds to their deaths at sea, but a visionary seeking peace for all mankind. You don't buy the explanation whatsoever but it does provide the needed backdrop for Nemo's exploits on the island.

The other significant difference is the inclusion of the love story between Elena and Herbert Brown (Michael Callan) in Mysterious Island. This is handled well and proves critical to establish the feel of a new colony suddenly threatened by the eruption of the volcano.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1997/II) (TV)

 

Directed by  Rod Hardy

Writing credits
Jules Verne (novel)
Brian Nelson (teleplay)

 

 

Genre: Adventure / Romance / Sci-Fi (more)

Plot Summary: The year is 1886, when New England's fishing harbours are the scene for a "creature of unknown origin" destroying ships at sea... 

User Comments: Second best made-for-TV version of 1997.

User Rating:  *****  5.4/10 (207 votes) 

Cast overview, first billed only:

 

Michael Caine

Captain Nemo

Patrick Dempsey

Pierre Arronax

Mia Sara

Mara

Bryan Brown

Ned Land

Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje

Cabe Attucks (as Adewale Akinnouye-Agbaje)

Kerry Armstrong

Lydia Rawlings

Peter McCauley

Adm. McCutcheon

Cecily Chun

Imei

Ken Senga

Shimoda

Damian Monk

Dennison

Steven Grives

Garfield

Gerry Day

Niurongu

Boe Kaan

Ivanda

John Bach

Thierry Arronax

Nicholas Hammond

Saxon



Runtime: Brazil:158 min / 60 min (3 episodes)
Country: USA / Australia
Language: English
Color: Color
Sound Mix: Stereo


Quotes: Captain Nemo: The sea covers seven tenths of the Earth. Its breadth is pure, and wholesome. It is an immense world, pulsating with every form of life. Here there are no despots. On the surface, men still exercise their endless laws, fight and indulge in all their bloody earthly horrors, but below the surface their power ceases... their dominion vanishes. To live, gentlemen, in the embrace of the sea... only here is there independence... here, I recognize no master... here, I am free. 

 

 

COMMENT:

 

1997 saw two TV versions of Jules Verne's classic and I suppose which ever a viewer saw first would forever tarnish their view of the second.  This means neither film was all that bad, neither all that great, and neither threw the Disney version off it's pedestal as being the true film classic (James Mason, Kirk Douglas, and Peter Lorre are a tough act to follow). 

 

Many people will watch anything remotely associated with Jules Verne.

 

Compared to the other TV version, this version which features Michael Caine as Captain Nemo is overlong and without style. It boasts a great cast (well cast and decent performances), nice sets, and sufficient special effects, but little imagination. While it lights up like a Christmas tree in production values, it pales in making anything seem interesting. Viewers expect remakes to show something a little different than seen or read.  

 

http://www.unmuseum.org/graphic

 

 

 

Cartoon Captain Nemo 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea

 

Cartoon Captain Nemo

 

 

 

Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea


by Jules Verne

 


PART ONE - CHAPTER I  A SHIFTING REEF

 

The year 1866 was signalised by a remarkable incident, a mysterious and puzzling phenomenon, which doubtless no one has yet forgotten. Not to mention rumours which agitated the maritime population and excited the public mind, even in the interior of continents, seafaring men were particularly excited. Merchants, common sailors, captains of vessels, skippers, both of Europe and America, naval officers of all countries, and the Governments of several States on the two continents, were deeply interested in the matter.

 

For some time past vessels had been met by "an enormous thing," a long object, spindle-shaped, occasionally phosphorescent, and infinitely larger and more rapid in its movements than a whale.

 

The facts relating to this apparition (entered in various log-books) agreed in most respects as to the shape of the object or creature in question, the untiring rapidity of its movements, its surprising power of locomotion, and the peculiar life with which it seemed endowed. If it was a whale, it surpassed in size all those hitherto classified in science. Taking into consideration the mean of observations made at divers times-- rejecting the timid estimate of those who assigned to this object a length of two hundred feet, equally with the exaggerated opinions which set it down as a mile in width and three in length--we might fairly conclude that this mysterious being surpassed greatly all dimensions admitted by the learned ones of the day, if it existed at all. And that it DID exist was an undeniable fact; and, with that tendency which disposes the human mind in favour of the marvellous, we can understand the excitement produced in the entire world by this supernatural apparition. As to classing it in the list of fables, the idea was out of the question.

 

On the 20th of July, 1866, the steamer Governor Higginson, of the Calcutta and Burnach Steam Navigation Company, had met this moving mass five miles off the east coast of Australia. Captain Baker thought at first that he was in the presence of an unknown sandbank; he even prepared to determine its exact position when two columns of water, projected by the mysterious object, shot with a hissing noise a hundred and fifty feet up into the air. Now, unless the sandbank had been submitted to the intermittent eruption of a geyser, the Governor Higginson had to do neither more nor less than with an aquatic mammal, unknown till then, which threw up from its blow-holes columns of water mixed with air and vapour.

 

Similar facts were observed on the 23rd of July in the same year, in the Pacific Ocean, by the Columbus, of the West India and Pacific Steam Navigation Company. But this extraordinary creature could transport itself from one place to another with surprising velocity; as, in an interval of three days, the Governor Higginson and the Columbus had observed it at two different points of the chart, separated by a distance of more than seven hundred nautical leagues.

 

Fifteen days later, two thousand miles farther off, the Helvetia, of the Compagnie-Nationale, and the Shannon, of the Royal Mail Steamship Company, sailing to windward in that portion of the Atlantic lying between the United States and Europe, respectively signalled the monster to each other in 42@ 15' N. lat. and 60@ 35' W. long. In these simultaneous observations they thought themselves justified in estimating the minimum length of the mammal at more than three hundred and fifty feet, as the Shannon and Helvetia were of smaller dimensions than it, though they measured three hundred feet over all.

 

Now the largest whales, those which frequent those parts of the sea round the Aleutian, Kulammak, and Umgullich islands, have never exceeded the length of sixty yards, if they attain that.

 

In every place of great resort the monster was the fashion. They sang of it in the cafes, ridiculed it in the papers, and represented it on the stage. All kinds of stories were circulated regarding it. There appeared in the papers caricatures of every gigantic and imaginary creature, from the white whale, the terrible "Moby Dick" of sub-arctic regions, to the immense kraken, whose tentacles could entangle a ship of five hundred tons and hurry it into the abyss of the ocean. The legends of ancient times were even revived.

 

 

 

 

Then burst forth the unending argument between the believers and the unbelievers in the societies of the wise and the scientific journals. "The question of the monster" inflamed all minds. Editors of scientific journals, quarrelling with believers in the supernatural, spilled seas of ink during this memorable campaign, some even drawing blood; for from the sea-serpent they came to direct personalities.

 

During the first months of the year 1867 the question seemed buried, never to revive, when new facts were brought before the public. It was then no longer a scientific problem to be solved, but a real danger seriously to be avoided. The question took quite another shape. The monster became a small island, a rock, a reef, but a reef of indefinite and shifting proportions.

 

On the 5th of March, 1867, the Moravian, of the Montreal Ocean Company, finding herself during the night in 27@ 30' lat. and 72@ 15' long., struck on her starboard quarter a rock, marked in no chart for that part of the sea. Under the combined efforts of the wind and its four hundred horse power, it was going at the rate of thirteen knots. Had it not been for the superior strength of the hull of the Moravian, she would have been broken by the shock and gone down with the 237 passengers she was bringing home from Canada.

 

The accident happened about five o'clock in the morning, as the day was breaking. The officers of the quarter-deck hurried to the after-part of the vessel. They examined the sea with the most careful attention. They saw nothing but a strong eddy about three cables' length distant, as if the surface had been violently agitated. The bearings of the place were taken exactly, and the Moravian continued its route without apparent damage. Had it struck on a submerged rock, or on an enormous wreck? They could not tell; but, on examination of the ship's bottom when undergoing repairs, it was found that part of her keel was broken.

 

This fact, so grave in itself, might perhaps have been forgotten like many others if, three weeks after, it had not been re-enacted under similar circumstances. But, thanks to the nationality of the victim of the shock, thanks to the reputation of the company to which the vessel belonged, the circumstance became extensively circulated.

 

 

Captain Nemo, played by James Mason

 

 

The 13th of April, 1867, the sea being beautiful, the breeze favourable, the Scotia, of the Cunard Company's line, found herself in 15@ 12' long. and 45@ 37' lat. She was going at the speed of thirteen knots and a half.

 

At seventeen minutes past four in the afternoon, whilst the passengers were assembled at lunch in the great saloon, a slight shock was felt on the hull of the Scotia, on her quarter, a little aft of the port-paddle.

 

The Scotia had not struck, but she had been struck, and seemingly by something rather sharp and penetrating than blunt. The shock had been so slight that no one had been alarmed, had it not been for the shouts of the carpenter's watch, who rushed on to the bridge, exclaiming, "We are sinking! we are sinking!" At first the passengers were much frightened, but Captain Anderson hastened to reassure them. The danger could not be imminent. The Scotia, divided into seven compartments by strong partitions, could brave with impunity any leak. 

 

Captain Anderson went down immediately into the hold. He found that the sea was pouring into the fifth compartment; and the rapidity of the influx proved that the force of the water was considerable. Fortunately this compartment did not hold the boilers, or the fires would have been immediately extinguished. Captain Anderson ordered the engines to be stopped at once, and one of the men went down to ascertain the extent of the injury. Some minutes afterwards they discovered the existence of a large hole, two yards in diameter, in the ship's bottom. Such a leak could not be stopped; and the Scotia, her paddles half submerged, was obliged to continue her course. She was then three hundred miles from Cape Clear, and, after three days' delay, which caused great uneasiness in Liverpool, she entered the basin of the company.

 

 

 

 

The engineers visited the Scotia, which was put in dry dock. They could scarcely believe it possible; at two yards and a half below water-mark was a regular rent, in the form of an isosceles triangle. The broken place in the iron plates was so perfectly defined that it could not have been more neatly done by a punch. It was clear, then, that the instrument producing the perforation was not of a common stamp and, after having been driven with prodigious strength, and piercing an iron plate 1 3/8 inches thick, had withdrawn itself by a backward motion.

 

Such was the last fact, which resulted in exciting once more the torrent of public opinion. From this moment all unlucky casualties which could not be otherwise accounted for were put down to the monster.

 

Upon this imaginary creature rested the responsibility of all these shipwrecks, which unfortunately were considerable; for of three thousand ships whose loss was annually recorded at Lloyd's, the number of sailing and steam-ships supposed to be totally lost, from the absence of all news, amounted to not less than two hundred!

 

Now, it was the "monster" who, justly or unjustly, was accused of their disappearance, and, thanks to it, communication between the different continents became more and more dangerous. The public demanded sharply that the seas should at any price be relieved from this formidable cetacean (a member of the whale family).

 

 

 

Walt Disney's original film classic - poster 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea

 

Walt Disney's original film classic - poster

 

 

STORY LINKS:

 

A - Z FILMS INDEX

 

 

 

13 GOING ON 30

16 BLOCKS

20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA

A PERFECT STORM

ALIEN

AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH

ATONEMENT

AUSTIN POWERS

BABE

BACK TO THE FUTURE

BATMAN

BIG MIRACLE

BRAVEHEART

BREAKFAST AT TIFFANY'S

BRIDGET JONES' DIARY

CASABLANCA

CASINO ROYALE

CAST AWAY

CATWOMAN

CHRISTINE

CON AIR

CROCODILE DUNDEE

DAREDEVIL

DEAD CALM

DIAMONDS ARE FOREVER

DIE HARD

DIRTY ROTTEN SCOUNDRELS

DISCLOSURE

DOLORES CLAIBORNE

DOLPHIN TALE

DR. NO

DUMB AND DUMBER

ERIN BROCKOVICH

FATAL ATTRACTION

FIRE ON THE AMAZON

FLIPPER

FLY AWAY HOME

FREE WILLY

FRENCH KISS

FROM RUSSIA WITH LOVE

GLADIATOR

 

 

 

GOLDFINGER

HARRY POTTER

HORNBLOWER

INDIANA JONES

JAMES BOND

JAWS

JURASSIC PARK

JUST LIKE HEAVEN

KING KONG

KUNG FU HUSTLE

LEON

MAN ON FIRE

MASTER and COMMANDER

MEAN GIRLS

MEDICINE MAN

MEN OF HONOUR

MISERY

MISS CONGENIALITY

MOBY DICK

MUTINY ON THE BOUNTY

NAKED GUN

NATIONAL TREASURE

OUT OF TIME

OVERBOARD

PARENT TRAP

PAYBACK

PEARL HARBOUR

PIRATES OF THE CARIBBEAN

PLANET OF THE APES

PRETTY WOMAN

PROMETHEUS

PSYCHO

P2 DEAD MANS CHEST

QUANTUM OF SOLACE

RACE THE SUN

RAMBO

ROB ROY

ROBIN HOOD PRINCE OF THEIVES

ROBOCOP

ROXANNE

SCHOOL OF ROCK

SCOTT OF THE ANTARCTIC

 

 

SEABISCUIT

SHORT CIRCUIT

SKYFALL

SPEED

SPIDERMAN

STAIRWAY TO HEAVEN

STAR GATE

STAR TREK

STAR WARS

THE 39 STEPS

THE AVIATOR

THE COUNT OF MONTE CHRISTO

THE DA VINCI CODE

THE DAMBUSTERS

THE FLY

THE FOG

THE MASK

THE MATRIX

THE MUMMY

THE MUMMY RETURNS

THE PATRIOT

THE PERFECT STORM

THE SILENCE OF THE LAMBS

THE SOUND OF MUSIC

THE TERMINATOR

THE THING

THE WORLD IS NOT ENOUGH

THE WORLDS FASTEST INDIAN

THUNDERBALL

TITANIC

TOMORROW NEVER DIES

TOP GUN

TRADING PLACES

TREASURE ISLAND

TROY

TRUE GRIT

UNFORGIVEN

YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE

WAR OF THE WORLDS  

WATERLOO BRIDGE

ZULU

 

 

 

 

 

A - Z ACTORS INDEX

 

 

 

Adam Sandler

Al Gore

Alec Baldwin

Angelina Jolie

Anthony Hopkins

Arnold Shwazenneger

Arnold Vosloo

Ashlea Kaye

Ben Affleck

Ben Stiller

Brad Pitt

Brendan Fraser

Bruce Willis

Burt Lancaster

Catherine Zeta Jones

Charlize Theron

Chris Cooper

Clint Eastwood

Daniel Craig

Demi Moore

Dennis Hopper

Denzel Washington

Dermot Mulroney

Drew Barrymore

Dwayne Johnson

Eric Bana

Eva Green

George Clooney

Gerard Butler

Gerard Depardieu

Glen Close

Goldie Hawn

Gregory Peck

Gwyneth Paltrow

Halle Berry

 

 

Harrison Ford

Harvey Keitel

Hugh Jackman

Humphrey Bogart

Ian Holm

Ingrid Bergman

Jack Black

Jack Nicholson

James Caan

James Cromwell

James McAvoy

Jason Statham

Jean Reno

Jeff Bridges

Jeff Daniels

Jennifer Garner

Jim Carrey

Joaquin Phoenix

John Hurt

John Mcavoy

John Travolta

John Wayne

Johnny Depp

Judi Dench

Julia Roberts

Julie Andrews

Kate Hudson

Kate Winslett

Kathy Bates

Keanu Reeves

Keira Knightley

Kevin Spacey

Kim Basinger

Kirk Douglas

 

 

 

Kirsten Dunst

Kristen Bell

Kurt Russell

Leonardo di Caprio

Liam Neeson

Linda King

Linda Kozlowski

Lindsay Lohan

Liz Hurley

Mads Mikkelsen

Marilyn Monroe

Mark Wahlberg

Marlon Brando

Matt Damon

Matthew McConaughey

Megan Fox

Mel Gibson

Michael Cain

Michael Douglas

Michael Fassbender

Michael J Fox

Michael Keaton

Michelle Pfeiffer

Mike Myers

Morgan Freeman

Naomi Watts

Nicholas Cage

Nicole Kidman

Orlando Bloom

Owen Wilson

Paul Bettany

Paul Hogan

Penelope Cruz

Pierce Brosnan

Rachel Weisz

 

 

Rebecca De Mornay

Reese Witherspoon

Rennee Zellweger

Richard Gere

Robert de Niro

Roger Moore

Russell Crowe

Sally Edwards

Sam Neil

Sam Worthington

Samuel L Jackson

Sandra Bullock

Scarlett Johansson

Sean Connery

Sharon Stone

Shia LeBeouf

Shirley Temple

Sigourney Weaver

Stanley Baker

Stephen Chow

Steve Martin

Steve McQueen

Steven Segal

Slyvester Stalone

Ted Danson

Tim Roth

Tobey Maguire

Tom Cruise

Tom Hanks

Tommy Lee Jones

Uma Thurman

Willem Dafoe

Will Smith

Yul Brynner

 

 

 

 

 

John Storm and Kulo Luna $billion dollar whale

When a pirate whaler kills a small humpback whale, a larger whale sinks the pirate ship to avenge the death, but is itself wounded. The pirates put a price on the whale's head, but an adventurer in an advanced solar powered boat races to beat the pirates and save the wounded animal. 

 

$Billion Dollar Whale, adventure novel by Jameson Hunter

 

A heartwarming action adventure: Pirate whalers V Conservationists, 

with an environmental message and a $Billion dollars riding on the winner.

For release as an e-book in 2013 with hopes for a film in 2015 

with a provisional budget of 100m including risk share, TBA

 

 


 

 

This website is Copyright 1999 & 2013 Max Energy Limited - an educational charity working hard to protect the planet.

AUTOMOTIVE  |  BLUEPLANET  |  ELECTRIC CARS  |  ELECTRIC CYCLES  |  SOLAR CARS  SOLARNAVIGATOR