Lithium Batteries

Energy storage for advanced marine robots





A truly autonomous ship needs to be independent in terms of energy. By that I mean that for true endurance autonomy a ship needs to be able to survive on energy that it derives from renewable sources: nature. On the assumption that we have our sums right, and that energy can be harnessed to keep our robot moving at a respectable pace, then we need to store some of the energy for the few times that nature is taking a rest. For that we need batteries, and we need batteries that are light and do not suffer from memory effect and other nasty side effects that nickel cadmium and to a lesser extent nickel metal hydride. For our project this leaves lithium batteries - of which there are many types.


A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB) is a family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging. Chemistry, performance, cost, and safety characteristics vary across LIB types. Unlike lithium primary batteries (which are disposable), lithium-ion electrochemical cells use an intercalated lithium compound as the electrode material instead of metallic lithium.

Lockheed lithium ion battery for NASA


 Lockheed lithium ion battery for NASA


Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy densities, no memory effect, and only a slow loss of charge when not in use. Beyond consumer electronics, LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. Research is yielding a stream of improvements to traditional LIB technology, focusing on energy density, durability, cost, and intrinsic safety.

Charge and discharge


During discharge, lithium ions Li+ carry the current from the negative to the positive electrode, through the non-aqueous electrolyte and separator diaphragm.

During charging, an external electrical power source (the charging circuit) applies a higher voltage (but of the same polarity) than that produced by the battery, forcing the current to pass in the reverse direction. The lithium ions then migrate from the positive to the negative electrode, where they become embedded in the porous electrode material in a process known as intercalation.



Cylindrical 18650 lithium iron phosphate cell before closing


Cylindrical 18650 lithium iron phosphate cell before closing



The three primary functional components of a lithium-ion battery are the anode, cathode, and electrolyte. The anode of a conventional lithium-ion cell is made from carbon, the cathode is a metal oxide, and the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent.

The most commercially popular anode material is graphite. The cathode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide (such as lithium cobalt oxide), a polyanion (such as lithium iron phosphate), or a spinel (such as lithium manganese oxide).

The electrolyte is typically a mixture of organic carbonates such as ethylene carbonate or diethyl carbonate containing complexes of lithium ions. These non-aqueous electrolytes generally use non-coordinating anion salts such as lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate monohydrate (LiAsF6), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), and lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3).

Depending on materials choices, the voltage, capacity, life, and safety of a lithium-ion battery can change dramatically. Recently, novel architectures using nanotechnology have been employed to improve performance.

Pure lithium is very reactive. It reacts vigorously with water to form lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Thus, a non-aqueous electrolyte is typically used, and a sealed container rigidly excludes water from the battery pack.

Lithium ion batteries are more expensive than NiCd batteries but operate over a wider temperature range with higher energy densities, while being smaller and lighter. They are fragile and so need a protective circuit to limit peak voltages.



Li-ion cells are available in various formats, which can generally be divided into four groups:

*Small cylindrical (solid body without terminals, such as those used in laptop batteries) 
*Large cylindrical (solid body with large threaded terminals) 
*Pouch (soft, flat body, such as those used in cell phones
*Prismatic (semi-hard plastic case with large threaded terminals, often used in vehicles' traction packs) 


The lack of case gives pouch cells the highest energy density; however, pouch cells (and prismatic cells) require an external means of containment to prevent expansion when their state-of-charge (SOC) level is high.


Varta 40 volt 40 amp hour litium ion battery pack


Varta lithium-ion battery, Museum Autovision, Altlussheim, Germany




Lithium metal is not directly compatible with water. However, the high gravimetric capacity of lithium metal, 3800 mA/g, and its highly negative standard electrode potential, Eo = -3.045 V, make it extremely attractive when combined as an electrochemical couple with oxygen or water. At a nominal potential of about 3 volts, the theoretical specific energy for a lithium/air battery is over 5000 Wh/kg for the reaction forming LiOH (Li + O2 + H2O = LiOH) and 11,000 Wh/kg for the reaction forming Li2O2 (Li + O2 = Li2O2) or for the reaction of lithium with seawater, rivaling the energy density for hydrocarbon fuel cells and far exceeding Li-ion battery chemistry that has a theoretical specific energy of about 400 Wh/kg. With the invention of the protected lithium electrode (PLE), PolyPlus has introduced a unique technology that makes lithium metal electrodes compatible with aqueous and aggressive non-aqueous electrolytes, and enables the development of a new class of high energy density batteries.


PolyPlus uses a solid electrolyte membrane to prevent direct electron transfer from the negative electrode to species in the aqueous electrolyte, therefore extending the voltage window from the oxidative limit of the aqueous electrolyte to the lithium electrode potential (~ 4.5 V). This technology allows the construction of practical aqueous lithium batteries with cell voltages similar to those of conventional Li-ion or lithium primary batteries, but with much higher energy density (for H2O or O2 cathodes). We have observed that the PLE is remarkably stable to aqueous electrolytes and does not appear to be susceptible to parasitic side reactions that can lead to self-discharge in batteries. The availability of a PLE enables the development of a new class of stable, high voltage (~ 3 V) aqueous batteries with exceptionally high energy density (> 1000 Wh/l & Wh/kg).





Lithium batteries were first proposed by M.S. Whittingham, now at Binghamton University, while working for Exxon in the 1970s. Whittingham used titanium(II) sulfide as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode.

The reversible intercalation in graphite and intercalation into cathodic oxides was also already discovered in the 1970s by J.O. Besenhard at TU Munich. He also proposed the application as high energy density lithium cells. Electrolyte decomposition and solvent co-intercalation into graphite were severe drawbacks for long battery cycle life.

Primary lithium batteries in which the anode is made from metallic lithium pose safety issues. As a result, lithium-ion batteries were developed in which both anode and cathode are made of a material containing lithium ions.

In 1979, John Goodenough demonstrated a rechargeable cell with high cell voltage in the 4V range using lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) as the positive electrode and lithium metal as the negative electrode. This innovation provided the positive electrode material which made LIBs possible. LiCoO2 is a stable positive electrode material which acts as a donor of lithium ions, which means that it can be used with a negative electrode material other than lithium metal. By enabling the use of stable and easy-to-handle negative electrode materials, LiCoO2 opened a whole new range of possibilities for novel rechargeable battery systems.

In 1977, Samar Basu demonstrated electrochemical intercalation of lithium in graphite at the University of Pennsylvania. This led to the development of a workable lithium intercalated graphite anode at Bell Labs (LiC6) to provide an alternative to the lithium metal battery.

In 1980, Rachid Yazami also demonstrated the reversible electrochemical intercalation of lithium in graphite. The organic electrolytes available at the time would decompose during charging if used with a graphite negative electrode, preventing the early development of a rechargeable battery which employed the lithium/graphite system. Yazami used a solid electrolyte to demonstrate that lithium could be reversibly intercalated in graphite through an electrochemical mechanism. The graphite anode discovered by Yazami is currently the most commonly used anode in commercial lithium ion batteries.

In 1983, Dr. Michael Thackeray, Goodenough, and coworkers identified manganese spinel as a cathode material. Spinel showed great promise, given its low-cost, good electronic and lithium ion conductivity, and three-dimensional structure, which gives it good structural stability. Although pure manganese spinel fades with cycling, this can be overcome with chemical modification of the material. Manganese spinel is currently used in commercial cells.

In 1985, Akira Yoshino assembled a prototype cell using carbonaceous material into which lithium ions could be inserted as the anode, and as the cathode lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), which is stable in air. By using an anode material without metallic lithium, safety was dramatically improved over batteries which used lithium metal. The use of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) enabled industrial-scale production to be achieved easily.

This was the birth of the current lithium-ion battery.


Lithium ion battery pack in the Nissan Leaf EV


Nissan Leaf's lithium-ion battery pack


Modern batteries


In 1991, Sony and Asahi Kasei released the first commercial lithium-ion battery.

In 1989, Goodenough and Arumugam Manthiram of the University of Texas at Austin showed that cathodes containing polyanions, e.g., sulfates, produce higher voltages than oxides due to the inductive effect of the polyanion.

In 1996, Goodenough, Akshaya Padhi and coworkers identified lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and other phospho-olivines (lithium metal phosphates with the same structure as mineral olivine) as cathode materials.

In 2002, Yet-Ming Chiang and his group at MIT showed a substantial improvement in the performance of lithium batteries by boosting the material's conductivity by doping it with aluminium, niobium and zirconium. The exact mechanism causing the increase became the subject of widespread debate.

In 2004, Chiang again increased performance by utilizing iron phosphate particles of less than 100 nanometers in diameter. This decreased particle density almost one hundredfold, increased the cathode's surface area and improved capacity and performance. Commercialization led to a rapid growth in the market for higher capacity LIBs, as well as a patent infringement battle between Chiang and Goodenough.

As of 2011, lithium-ion batteries account for 67% of all portable secondary battery sales in Japan.



The three participants in the electrochemical reactions in a lithium-ion battery are the anode, cathode, and electrolyte.

Both the anode and cathode are materials into which, and from which, lithium can migrate. During insertion (or intercalation) lithium moves into the electrode. During the reverse process, extraction (or deintercalation), lithium moves back out. When a lithium-based cell is discharging, the lithium is extracted from the anode and inserted into the cathode. When the cell is charging, the reverse occurs.

Useful work can only be extracted if electrons flow through a closed external circuit. The following equations are in units of moles, making it possible to use the coefficient.

The overall reaction has its limits. Overdischarge supersaturates lithium cobalt oxide, leading to the production of lithium oxide, possibly by the following irreversible reaction:

Overcharge up to 5.2 Volts leads to the synthesis of cobalt(IV) oxide, as evidenced by x-ray diffraction

In a lithium-ion battery the lithium ions are transported to and from the cathode or anode, with the transition metal, cobalt (Co), in being oxidized from Co3+ to Co4+ during charging, and reduced from Co4+ to Co3+ during discharge.


Nokia Li-ion battery for powering a mobile phone


Nokia Li-ion battery for powering a mobile phone


Positive electrodes


Electrode material Average potential difference Specific capacity Specific energy 
LiCoO2 3.7 V 140 mAh/g 0.518 kWh/kg 
LiMn2O4 4.0 V 100 mAh/g 0.400 kWh/kg 
LiNiO2 3.5 V 180 mAh/g 0.630 kWh/kg 
LiFePO4 3.3 V 150 mAh/g 0.495 kWh/kg 
Li2FePO4F 3.6 V 115 mAh/g 0.414 kWh/kg 
LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 3.6 V 160 mAh/g 0.576 kWh/kg 
Li(LiaNixMnyCoz)O2 4.2 V 220 mAh/g 0.920 kWh/kg 
[edit] Negative electrodesElectrode material Average potential difference Specific capacity Specific energy 
Graphite (LiC6) 0.1-0.2 V 372 mAh/g 0.0372-0.0744 kWh/kg 
Hard Carbon (LiC6) ? V ? mAh/g ? kWh/kg 
Titanate (Li4Ti5O12) 1-2 V 160 mAh/g 0.16-0.32 kWh/kg 
Si (Li4.4Si)[38] 0.5-1 V 4212 mAh/g 2.106-4.212 kWh/kg 
Ge (Li4.4Ge)[39] 0.7-1.2 V 1624 mAh/g 1.137-1.949 kWh/kg 
[edit] ElectrolytesThe cell voltages given in the Electrochemistry section are larger than the potential at which aqueous solutions can electrolyze, in addition lithium is highly reactive to water, therefore, nonaqueous or aprotic solutions are used.

Liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries consist of lithium salts, such as LiPF6, LiBF4 or LiClO4 in an organic solvent, such as ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, and diethyl carbonate. A liquid electrolyte conducts lithium ions, acting as a carrier between the cathode and the anode when a battery passes an electric current through an external circuit. Typical conductivities of liquid electrolyte at room temperature (20 C (68 F)) are in the range of 10 mS/cm (1 S/m), increasing by approximately 3040% at 40 C (104 F) and decreasing by a slightly smaller amount at 0 C (32 F)

Unfortunately, organic solvents easily decompose on anodes during charging. However, when appropriate organic solvents are used as the electrolyte, the solvent decomposes on initial charging and forms a solid layer called the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), which is electrically insulating yet provides sufficient ionic conductivity. The interphase prevents decomposition of the electrolyte after the second charge. For example, ethylene carbonate is decomposed at a relatively high voltage, 0.7 V vs. lithium, and forms a dense and stable interface.

A good solution for the interface instability is the application of a new class of composite electrolytes based on POE (poly(oxyethylene)) developed by Syzdek et al. It can be either solid (high molecular weight) and be applied in dry Li-polymer cells, or liquid (low molecular weight) and be applied in regular Li-ion cells.

Another issue that Li-ion technology is facing is safety. Large scale application of Li cells in Electric Vehicles needs a dramatic decrease in the failure rate. One of the solutions is the novel technology based on reversed-phase composite electrolytes, employing porous ceramic material filled with electrolyte.

Advantages and disadvantages


Note that both advantages and disadvantages depend on the materials and design that make up the battery. This summary reflects older designs that use carbon anode, metal oxide cathodes, and lithium salt in an organic solvent for the electrolyte.


Optima ACP TZERO tubular plate lead acid batteries


Optima ACP TZERO tubular plate lead acid batteries




Wide variety of shapes and sizes efficiently fitting the devices they power. 


Much lighter than other energy-equivalent secondary batteries.


High open circuit voltage in comparison to aqueous batteries (such as lead acid, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium). This is beneficial because it increases the amount of power that can be transferred at a lower current.

No memory effect. 


Self-discharge rate of approximately 5-10% per month, compared to over 30% per month in common nickel metal hydride batteries, approximately 1.25% per month for Low Self-Discharge NiMH batteries and 10% per month in nickel-cadmium batteries. According to one manufacturer, lithium-ion cells (and, accordingly, "dumb" lithium-ion batteries) do not have any self-discharge in the usual meaning of this word. What looks like a self-discharge in these batteries is a permanent loss of capacity (see Disadvantages). On the other hand, "smart" lithium-ion batteries do self-discharge, due to the drain of the built-in voltage monitoring circuit. 


Components are environmentally safe as there is no free lithium metal.

Disadvantages - Cell life


Charging forms deposits inside the electrolyte that inhibit ion transport. Over time, the cell's capacity diminishes. The increase in internal resistance reduces the cell's ability to deliver current. This problem is more pronounced in high-current applications. The decrease means that older batteries do not charge as much as new ones (charging time required decreases proportionally). 

High charge levels and elevated temperatures (whether from charging or ambient air) hasten capacity loss. Charging heat is caused by the carbon anode (typically replaced with lithium titanate which drastically reduces damage from charging, including expansion and other factors).

Internal resistance


The internal resistance of standard (Cobalt) lithium-ion batteries is high compared to both other rechargeable chemistries such as nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium, and LiFePO4 and lithium-polymer cells. Internal resistance increases with both cycling and age. Rising internal resistance causes the voltage at the terminals to drop under load, which reduces the maximum current draw. Eventually increasing resistance means that the battery can no longer operate for an adequate period. 

To power larger devices, such as electric cars, connecting many small batteries in a parallel circuit is more effective and efficient than connecting a single large battery.

Safety requirements


If overheated or overcharged, Li-ion batteries may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture.[56] In extreme cases this can lead to combustion. Deep discharge may short-circuit the cell, in which case recharging would be unsafe. To reduce these risks, Lithium-ion battery packs contain fail-safe circuitry that shuts down the battery when its voltage is outside the safe range of 34.2 V per cell. When stored for long periods the small current draw of the protection circuitry itself may drain the battery below its shut down voltage; normal chargers are then ineffective. Many types of lithium-ion cell cannot be charged safely below 0C.

Other safety features are required in each cell:

* Shut-down separator (for overtemperature) 
* Tear-away tab (for internal pressure) 
* Vent (pressure relief) 
* Thermal interrupt (overcurrent/overcharging) 

These devices occupy useful space inside the cells, add additional points of failure and irreversibly disable the cell when activated. They are required because the anode produces heat during use, while the cathode may produce oxygen. These devices and improved electrode designs reduce/eliminate the risk of fire or explosion.

These safety features increase costs compared to nickel metal hydride batteries, which require only a hydrogen/oxygen recombination device (preventing damage due to mild overcharging) and a back-up pressure valve.

Specifications and design


Specific energy density: 150 to 250 Wh/kg (540 to 900 kJ/kg)
Volumetric energy density: 250 to 620 Wh/l (900 to 1900 J/cm)[2] 
Specific power density: 300 to 1500 W/kg (@ 20 seconds and 285 Wh/l)

Because lithium-ion batteries can have a variety of cathode and anode materials, the energy density and voltage vary accordingly.

Lithium-ion batteries with a lithium iron phosphate cathode and graphite anode have a nominal open-circuit voltage of 3.2 V and a typical charging voltage of 3.6 V. Lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide cathode with graphite anodes have a 3.7 V nominal voltage with a 4.2 V max charge. The charging procedure is performed at constant voltage with current-limiting circuitry (i.e., charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached in the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero). Typically, the charge is terminated at 3% of the initial charge current. In the past, lithium-ion batteries could not be fast-charged and needed at least two hours to fully charge. Current-generation cells can be fully charged in 45 minutes or less. Some lithium-ion varieties can reach 90% in as little as 10 minutes.

Battery charging procedure


The charging procedures for single Li-ion cells, and complete Li-ion batteries, are slightly different.

A single Li-ion cell is charged in 2 stages:

1. CC 
2. CV 

A Li-ion battery (a set of Li-ion cells in series) is charged in 3 stages:

1. CC

2. Balance (not required once a battery is balanced) 
3. CV

Stage 1: CC: Apply charging current to the battery, until the voltage limit per cell is reached.

Stage 2: Balance: Reduce the charging current (or cycle the charging on and off to reduce the average current) while the State Of Charge of individual cells is balanced by a balancing circuit, until the battery is balanced.

Stage 3: CV: Apply a voltage equal to the maximum cell voltage times the number of cells in series to the battery, as the current gradually declines asymptotically towards 0, until the current is below a set threshold of about 3% of initial constant charge current.

Variations in materials and construction


The increasing demand for batteries has led vendors and academics to focus on improving the power density, operating temperature, safety, durability, charging time, output power, and cost of LIB solutions.



A lithium-ion battery from a laptop computer



Usage guidelines
- Prolonging battery pack life


Avoid deep discharge and instead charge more often between uses, the smaller the depth of discharge, the longer the battery will last.

Avoid storing the battery in full discharged state. As the battery will self-discharge over time, its voltage will gradually lower, and when it is depleted below the low-voltage threshold (2.4 to 2.9 V/cell, depending on chemistry) it cannot be charged anymore because the protection circuit (a type of electronic fuse) disables it.

Lithium-ion batteries should be kept cool; they may be stored in a refrigerator.

The rate of degradation of Lithium-ion batteries is strongly temperature-dependent; they degrade much faster if stored or used at higher temperatures.

Multicell devices


Li-ion batteries require a battery management system to prevent operation outside each cell's safe operating area (over-charge, under-charge, safe temperature range) and to balance cells to eliminate SOC mismatches, significantly improving battery efficiency and increasing overall capacity. As the number of cells and load currents increase, the potential for mismatch also increases. There are two kinds of mismatch in the pack: state-of-charge (SOC) and capacity/energy ("C/E") mismatch. Though SOC is more common, each problem limits pack capacity (mAh) to the capacity of the weakest cell.



Lithium-ion batteries can rupture, ignite, or explode when exposed to high temperature. Short-circuiting a battery will cause the cell to overheat and possibly to catch fire. Adjacent cells may then overheat and fail, possibly causing the entire battery to ignite or rupture. In the event of a fire, the device may emit dense irritating smoke.

Replacing the lithium cobalt oxide cathode material in lithium-ion batteries with a lithium metal phosphate such as lithium iron phosphate, improves cycle counts, shelf life and safety, but lowers capacity. Currently, these 'safer' lithium-ion batteries are mainly used in electric cars and other large-capacity battery applications, where safety issues are critical.

Lithium-ion batteries normally contain safety devices to protect the cells from disturbance. However, contaminants inside the cells can defeat these safety devices.



In March 2007, Lenovo recalled approximately 205,000 batteries at risk of explosion. In August 2007, Nokia recalled over 46 million batteries at risk of overheating and exploding. One such incident occurred in the Philippines involving a Nokia N91, which uses the BL-5C battery.

In December 2006, Dell recalled approximately 22,000 laptop batteries from the US market. Approximately 10 million Sony batteries used in Dell, Sony, Apple, Lenovo/IBM, Panasonic, Toshiba, Hitachi, Fujitsu and Sharp laptops were recalled in 2006. The batteries were found to be susceptible to internal contamination by metal particles. Under some circumstances, these particles could pierce the separator, causing a short-circuit.

In October 2004, Kyocera Wireless recalled approximately 1 million mobile phone batteries to identify counterfeits.

Transport restrictions


In January 2008, the United States Department of Transportation ruled that passengers on commercial aircraft could carry lithium batteries in their checked baggage if the batteries are installed in a device. Types of batteries affected by this rule are those containing lithium, including Li-ion, lithium polymer, and lithium cobalt oxide chemistries. Lithium-ion batteries containing more than 25 grams (0.88 oz) equivalent lithium content (ELC) are exempt from the rule and are forbidden in air travel. This restriction greatly reduces the chances of the batteries short-circuiting and causing a fire.

Additionally, a limited number of replacement batteries may be transported in carry-on luggage. Such batteries must be sealed in their original protective packaging or in individual containers or plastic bags.

Some postal administrations restrict air shipping (including EMS) of lithium and lithium-ion batteries, and products containing these (for example: laptops, cell phones). Among these countries and regions are Hong Kong, Australia and Japan.



Researchers are working to improve the power density, safety, recharge cycle, cost and other characteristics of these batteries.

Solid-state designs  have the potential to deliver three times the energy density of typical 2011 lithium-ion batteries at less than half the cost per kilowatt-hour. This approach eliminates binders, separators, and liquid electrolytes. By eliminating these, "you can get around 95% of the theoretical energy density of the active materials." 

Earlier trials of this technology encountered cost barriers, because the semiconductor industry's vacuum deposition technology cost 2030 times too much. The new process deposits semiconductor-quality films from a solution. The nano-structured films grow directly on a substrate and then sequentially on top of each other. The process allows the firm to "spray-paint a cathode, then a separator/electrolyte, then the anode. It can be cut and stacked in various form factors.





"Rechargeable Li-Ion OEM Battery Products".

"Panasonic Develops Higher-Capacity Li-Ion Cells; Application of Silicon-based Alloy in Anode".

The effect of PHEV and HEV duty cycles on battery and battery pack performance (PDF). 2007

Vapor-grown carbon fiber anode for cylindrical lithium batteries. Journal of Power Sources

Battery Types and Characteristics for HEV ThermoAnalytics, Inc., 2007

Ballon, Massie Santos (14 October 2008). "Electrovaya, Tata Motors to make electric Indica". Cleantech Group

Thackeray, Thomas, and Whittingham (March 2000). Mixed Conductors for Lithium Batteries.; Materials Research Society

MSDS: National Power Corp Lithium Ion Batteries (PDF).; Tektronix Inc., 7 May 2004

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium-Ion Battery Packs page 2

"Cell boards for various cell formats".

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium-Ion Battery Packs page 234

"USPTO search for inventions by "Goodenough, John"".

US 4304825, Basu; Samar, "Rechargeable battery", issued 8 December 1981, assigned to Bell Telephone Laboratories

Gholamabbas Nazri, Gianfranco Pistoia (2004). Lithium batteries: science and ... - Google Books. Springer

Voelcker, John (September 2007). Lithium Batteries Take to the Road IEEE Spectrum.

US 4668595, Yoshino; Akira, "Secondary Battery", issued 10 May 1985, assigned to Asahi Kasei

Padhi, A. K. (1997). "Phospho-olivines as positive-electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries". Electrochem. Society 

Editors (6 March 2008). "In search of the perfect battery" (PDF). The Economist

Staff (November 2003) (PDF). Lithium Ion technical handbook. Gold Peak Industries Ltd.

"Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes" (PDF)

C. K. Chan; X. F. Zhang, Y. Cui (2007). "High Capacity Li-ion Battery Anodes Using Ge Nanowires" (PDF)

Liquid Electrolyte Systems for Advanced Lithium Batteries (PDF).; Chemical Engineering Research Information Center

"A123 M1 cell specifications".

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium-Ion Battery Packs page 12

Buchmann, Isidor (200804). "Choosing a battery that will last". Isidor Buchmann (CEO of Cadex Electronics Inc.)

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium-Ion Battery Packs page 229

Buchmann, Isidor (September 2006). " How to prolong lithium-based batteries"

Buchmann, Isidor (February 2003). "Advanced battery analyzers". Isidor Buchmann

"Lithium-ion Battery Charging Basics". PowerStream Technologies

AeroVironment achieves electric vehicle fast-charge milestone; AeroVironment, 30 May 2007

"Charging Lithium-ion Batteries".

"The 3 charging stages".

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium Ion Battery Packs section 6.2.3

Kevin Jost [ed.] (October 2006). Tech Briefs: CPI takes new direction on Li-ion batteries (PDF)

Voelcker, John (September 2007). Lithium Batteries Take to the Road. IEEE Spectrum.

Loveday, Eric (23 April 2010). "Hitachi develops manganese cathode, could double life of li-ion batteries".

Nikkei (29 November 2009). Nissan On Track Nickel Manganese Cobalt Li-ion Cell for 2015 Green Car Congress

Bulkeley, William M. (26 November 2005). "New Type of Battery Offers Voltage Aplenty, at Premium"

(2 November 2005) A123Systems Launches Higher-Power, Faster Recharging Green Car Congress.

"Imara Corporation website". Retrieved 8 October 2011.

Battery Company Says Its Technology Boosts Hybrid Battery Performance Green Car Advisor; Edmunds Inc.

"A multifunctional 3.5 V iron-based phosphate cathode for rechargeable batteries"

"A Research First: Lithium Air Battery Development (Press Release)". 17 November 2009

"Vanadium Modified LiFePO4 Cathode for Li-ion Batteries"

Acceptance of the First Grid-Scale, Battery Energy Storage System" (Press release) 21 November 2008

Marty Ozols (11 November 2009). Altair Nanotechnologies Power Partner - The Military

"Microsoft PowerPoint - 061125 Altair EDTA Presentation".

Blain, Loz (2 November 2007). "Subaru doubles the battery range on its electric car concept". gizmag.

"Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries Made Safer". Nikkei Electronics Asia. 29 January 2008.


Palca, Joe (6 April 2009). Hidden Ingredient In New, Greener Battery: A Virus.; National Public Radio.

Zandonella, Catherine (11 April 2009). "Battery grown from "armour plated" viruses". New Scientist

Bullis, Kevin (28 September 2006). "Powerful Batteries That Assemble Themselves". technologyreview

"Bad Virus Put to Good Use". Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland. 6 December 2010.

"Self-Assembled Nanocomposites Boost Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes"

Nature Materials

"New Nanowire Battery Holds 10 Times The Charge Of Existing Ones". Science Daily. 20 December 2007

"Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough". GM-Volt.

"Metal hydrides for lithium-ion batteries". Nature Materials 7 (11): 916921. 2008NatMa...7..916O

"Laboratory of the Prof. Gleb Yushin". 31 August 2011.

"Deformations in Si−Li Anodes Electrochemical Alloying in Nano-Confined Space". American Chemical Society

(30 September 2011). "A Simple Way to Boost Battery Storage". Technology Review

Welcome to Ener1. Ener1 (Press release). Archived from the original 8 July 2006. 

EnerDel Technical Presentation (PDF). EnerDel Corporation. 29 October 2007.

Bullis, Kevin (22 June 2006). Higher-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology Review

"How to Prolong Lithium-based Batteries". Battery University

"Modelling Lithium-ion cells, Analysis Lithium-Ion Battery Degradation during Thermal Aging" 


About Battery Management Systems

White Paper - CCCV chargers: a false sense of security. ELithion LLC.

Commercial Power (9 September 2006). "Safety handling guidelines for Lithium Batteries" (PDF). University.

"Safety Last". The New York Times.

Nokia issues BL-5C battery warning, offers replacement. Wikinews. 14 August 2007.

Staff (27 July 2007). Nokia N91 cell phone explodes Mukamo - Filipino News (blog).

"Dell Recalls Lithium Batteries". Chemical and Engineering News:11; American Chemical Society

Dell laptop explodes at Japanese conference. The Inquirer.

"Kyocera Launches Precautionary Battery Recall" (Press release). Kyocera Wireless. 28 October 2004.

"Safe Travel". U.S. Department of Transportation. 1 January 2008

"U.S. Department of Transportation revises lithium battery rules press release". Little Guy Media

Prohibitions - 6.3.12 - Dangerous, offensive and indecent articles (PDF). Hong Kong. December 2009

International Mail > FAQs > Goods/Services: Shipping a Laptop Japan Post Service Co. Ltd.

Melody Voth (6 December 2010). "Battery Booster".

"What Are Batteries, Fuel Cells, and Supercapacitors?" (PDF). Chemical Review 104 (104): 4245.

 doi:10.1021/cr020730k. Retrieved 25 July 2010.

Lithium batteries at the Open Directory Project

"The Future of Electric Vehicles on Lithium Availability". Journal of Energy Security




Automotive Development


Battery cartridges are the way to go for road cars. The designer of Solarnavigator has already built several cars featuring battery cartridge exchange, as seen below. Lithium Ion batteries offer a much higher energy density and are ideal for extending the range between cartridge exchanges. See the pictures below for examples.



Early battery cartridge design be1

pneumatic battery cartridge loading servo be1

Prototype battery cartridge suitable for racing and road cars - this design has since been improved


Prototype pneumatic battery cartridge loading servo installed in an electric racing car in 1995 - uses more space but it is very fast



battery cartridge electric servo mechanism front

battery cartridge electric servo loading mechanism rear

Battery cartridge refueling system - Electric servo loading mechanism installed in a prototype Rover - front end


Rear end of Rover car (boot) - this is a more compact design than the pneumatic servo above - with exchanges taking no more than two to three minutes



Intelligent Battery Support System



European Commission star circle logo







Paints - Coatings

Autonomy - Computers - Software

Project Estimates


Project Objectives


PR Events - 

Construction - Modular


Diving - Hull survey & repair

Record Attempt

Electronics - Collision Avoidance COLREGS

Screens - 

Galley - 

Solar Arrays - tracking theory PIC PCB  MPPT PV trackers  Actuators & circuits

Hydraulics - Active hull - 

Stealth - Scorpion laser - Mine hunter

Hull Design - Capsize - SWASSH - Lubrication - Mass

Timber - 

Life Support - 

Tank Testing - Open water collision avoidance

Model ConstructionHulls - Wings - W'gens - ROV - AI

Tooling - 

Motors - DC v AC synchronous

Transmission - gearing & prop shaft/seals

Navigation  - Oceanographic Hydrographic Surveying

Treasure hunting - marine archaeology

Paints - Antifouling

Wind Turbines -



This website is copyright 2013 Electrick Publications. All rights reserved. The bird logo and names Solar Navigator and Blueplanet Ecostar are trademarks .  The Blueplanet vehicle configuration is registered .  All other trademarks hereby acknowledged and please note that this project should not be confused with the Australian: 'World Solar Challenge'which is a superb road vehicle endurance race from Darwin to Adelaide.

 Max Energy Limited is an educational charity working for world peace.