THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the
United Kingdom of the
Netherlands. A French army under the command of
Napoleon was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: an Anglo-allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.
After the Battle of Quatre Bras Wellington withdrew from Quatre Bras to Waterloo. After the simultaneous Battle of Ligny the Prussians withdrew parallel to Wellington, drawing a third part of Napoleon's forces away from Waterloo to the separate and simultaneous Battle of Wavre. Upon learning that the Prussian army was able to support him, Wellington decided to offer battle on the Mont-Saint-Jean escarpment, across the Brussels road. Here he withstood repeated attacks by the French throughout the afternoon, aided by the progressively arriving Prussians. In the evening Napoleon committed his last reserves to a desperate final attack, which was narrowly beaten back. With the Prussians breaking through on the French right flank Wellington's Anglo-allied army counter-attacked in the center, and the French army was routed.
ANALYSIS - HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE
LINKS and REFERENCE
Bonaparte (Napoléon Ier). Insecula: L'encyclopedie des artes et de l'architecture.
Napoleon I of France. France.com.
(CSI). CSI studies.
Asprey, Robert (2000). The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04879-X.
Cronin, Vincent (1994). Napoleon. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-637521-9.
Durant, Will and Durant, Ariel (1975). The Age of Napoleon. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21988-X (PT. 11).
McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon: A Biography. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6247-2.
Hazareesingh, Sudhir. Legend of Napoleon. London: Granta Books, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 1862076677); 2005 (paperback, ISBN 1862077894)
Pope, Stephen (1999). The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35229-2.
Schom, Alan (1998). Napoleon Bonaparte: A Life. Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092958-8.
Zamoyski, Adam (2004). 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March on Moscow. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-718489-1.
A. Gautier, Un drogman à Sainte-Hélène, le baron Barthélémi de Stürmer (1787-1863), Le Bulletin, Association des anciens élèves, Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO)(National Institute of Languages and Oriental Civilizations), October 2003, pp. 39-48
Full texts of
The Imperial Constitution (in French)
Cronin (1994), pp. 20-21; McLynn (1998), p.8.
McLynn (1998), p. 18.
Asprey (2000), p. 13.
McLynn (1998), p. 31.
The Claremont Institute: The Little Tyrant, A review of Napoleon: A Penguin Life, by Paul Johnson.. The quoted passages within this text are from Johnson.
Napoleon I Chronology in World History Database
Napoleonic Satires A Brown University Library Digital Collection
"The Strange Story of Napoleon's Wallpaper" - discussing the possibility of arsenic poisoning
PBS Napoleon - Detailed biography of Napoleon
Napoleon I the Great - Concise history of the French Empire
The Napoleon Series - Acknowledging the extraordinary talents of the man who defined an age (1789-1821) and the remarkable men and women who peopled and shaped it, the Napoleon Series seeks to promote the continued, scholarly exploration of that age.
Napoleonic Association Napoleonic Reenactment and Living History, UK
The Napoleonic Society of America - Society founded in 1983 to inform and provide its members with the means to share its knowledge and views about Napoleon and the Napoleonic Empire.
International Napoleonic Society - "The purpose of the International Napoleonic Society is to promote the study of the Napoleonic Era in accordance with proper academic standards."
Corsika and Napoleon, (Norwegian site about Corsika and Napoleon)
Historic doubts relative to Napoleon Buonaparte, Whately's (1787-1863) Essay on Napoleon.
L'Aigle conquerant, French site about Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon, lot's of info in French and English and also a very nice screensaver.
Napoleon (encarta article)
Napoleon I (1769-1821) Brief description of Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon 1e, French site about the emperor.
Napoleon Bonaparte, Brief Dutch description of Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte, Japanese site about Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte explained in German.
Napoleon died of arsenic poisoning?, is this true?
Napoleon to Josephine, the story of their love.
Napoleon Series, the website about Napoleon Bonaparte and the Napoleonic Era.
Napoleon's Words of Wisdom, quotations of Napoleon.
Napoleonic Literature, many paintings and pictures, electronic books, information, etc.
Napoleonic Society, share views with thousands of others who are interested in Napoleon.
The Rise of Napoleon, a few facts about Napoleon.
Vain Glory Napoleon Bonaparte the Great, poems about Napoleon.
A quick primer on Waterloo, tells the story about the battle of Waterloo
Waterloo Table of Contents, part of the website Napoleonic-Literature
Admiral Horatio Nelson, Napoleon's famous naval rival
Napoleon, Links to sites about Napoleon himself
Code Napoleon, Links to sites about Napoleon's law books
Napoleon Biography, Links to sites that provide biographical material on Napoleon and family
Napoleonic Era, Links to sites about the Napoleonic Era in general
Napoleonic Paintings, Links to sites with paintings of Napoleon and his Era.
Napoleonic Forums, Links to discussion groups about Napoleon and his Era
Things to buy, Links to sites that sell all kinds of Napoleonic items.
Wargaming, Links to Napoleon-related games and re-enactment groups
Multimedia, Links to software, music, and a video about Napoleon and his Era
Waterloo, Links to sites about this famous battle
St. Helena, Links to sites about the island where Napoleon spent his last years
History, Links to history sites (Not Napoleonic)
The Napoleon Series: an Electronic Magazine dedicated to Napoleon and his times
a multi-faceted site about Napoleon and his epoch-making
period of history
The Battle of Waterloo
GENERAL HISTORY LINKS
LION HILL - A monument to the Battle of Waterloo, featuring a lion on a plinth monument.
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