Inventors improve the quality of life the world over.




Below are some of the great names in history, the men and women responsible for inventions that changed the world.  The world around us is changing so fast now, it is hard to keep pace with all the advances.  However, there are great challenges ahead if we are to conserve our natural world and overcome political and other social issues.



Archimedes, the great thinker, inventor of the water screw pump

Thomas Edison, inventor of the electric light bulb

Alfred Noble, inventor of dynamite

Albert Einstein, inventor, theory of relativity


Famous Inventors






Albert Einstein - light & energy relativity

Alec Issigonis - mini front drive transverse engine

Alexander Graham Bell - telephone

Archimedes - screw pump & mass

Barnes Wallis - Dambusters Bomb

Benjamin Franklin - electricity, lightning

Charles Babbage - Computer

Christopher Cockerell - Hovercraft

Clive Sinclair - ZX80 computer & C5 runabout

Ferdinand Porsche - electric cars & VW beetle

Frank Whittle - jet engine

Francis Bacon - experimental science

Galileo Galilei - astronomy, pendulum clock

George Eastman - photographic film

George Stephenson - Rocket steam locomotive

Gottlieb Daimler

Guglielmo Marconi

Henry Ford - factory production lines

Howard Hughes

How Things Work - Links

Isaac Newton

Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Great Eastern

James Dyson - vortex chamber vacuum cleaner

James Watt - steam engine




John Dunlop - car tires

John Ericsson - marine propeller

John Logie Baird - television

John McAdam - tar bound road surfacing

Joseph Swan - incandescent light bulb

Leonardo da Vinci

Louis Bleriot - cross channel flight

Michael Faraday

Montgolfier Brothers - hot air balloon

Nelson Kruschandl - Robot

                         - Car joystick

                         - EV refuelling system

                         - Minisub nuclear sub hunter

                         - Solar Yacht

                         - Wind tunnel

                         - Artificial Intelligence

Nikolaus Otto

Robert Fulton

Rudolph Diesel - compression ignition engine

Thomas Edison - light bulb

Thomas Sopwith

Thomas Telford - roads & bridge builder

Trevor Bayliss - wind up radio

Sebastian de Farranti

Wright Brothers - Orville and Wilbur







George Antheil, (1990-1959),
Bruno Abakanowicz, (1852–1900), Poland/Lithuania/Russia/France – Integraph, spirograph
Vitaly Abalakov, (1906–1986), Russia – camming devices, Abalakov thread (or V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor
Hovannes Adamian, (1879–1932), Armenia/Russia – tricolor principle of the color television
Robert Adler, (1913–2007), Austria/United States – wireless remote control (with Eugene Polley)
Anatoly Alexandrov, (1903–1994), Russia – anti-mine demagnetising of ships, naval nuclear reactors (including one for the first nuclear icebreaker)
Alexandre Alexeieff, (1901–1982) Russia/France – pinscreen animation (with his wife Claire Parker)
Rostislav Alexeyev, (1916–1980), Russia – ekranoplan
Zhores Alferov, (1930), Russia – heterotransistor, continuous-wave-operating diode laser (together with Dmitri Garbuzov)
Genrich Altshuller, (1926–1998), Russia – TRIZ ("The Theory of Solving Inventor's Problems")
Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe, (1872–1931), Germany – Gyrocompass
Mary Anderson, (1866–1953), United States – windshield wiper blade
Vasily Andreyev, (1861–1918), Russia – standard balalaika
Oleg Antonov, (1906–1984), Russia – An-series aircraft, including A-40 winged tank and An-124 (the largest serial cargo, later modified to world's largest fixed-wing aircraft An-225)
Nicolas Appert, (1749–1841), France – canning (airtight food preservation)
Archimedes, (c. 287–212 BC), Greece – Archimedes' screw
Ami Argand, (1750–1803), France – Argand lamp
Edwin Howard Armstrong,(1890–1954), U.S. – FM radio
William George Armstrong, (1810–1900), UK – hydraulic crane
Neil Arnott, (1788–1874), UK – waterbed
Lev Artsimovich, (1909–1973), Russia – tokamak
Joseph Aspdin, (1788–1855), England – Portland cement
John Vincent Atanasoff, (1903–1995),Bulgaria/U.S. – modern digital computer



Charles Babbage, (1791–1871), UK – analytical engine (semi-automatic)
Roger Bacon, (1214–1292), England – magnifying glass
Leo Baekeland, (1863–1944), Belgian–American – Velox photographic paper and Bakelite
Ralph H. Baer, (1922–), German born American – video game console
Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, (1162–1231), Iraq/Egypt – ventilator
John Logie Baird, (1888–1946), Scotland – an electromechanical television, electronic color television
Abi Bakr of Isfahan, (c. 1235), Persia/Iran – mechanical geared astrolabe with lunisolar calendar analog computer
Donát Bánki, (1859–1922), Hungary – inventor of the carburetor for the stationary engine[1]
Ridgway Banks, inventor of the Banks Engine, a Nitinol based solid state heat engine
Vladimir Baranov-Rossine, (1888–1944), Ukraine/Russia/France – Optophonic Piano, pointillist or dynamic military camouflage
John Barber, (1734–1801), England – gas turbine
John Bardeen, (1908–1991), U.S. – co-inventor of the transistor
Vladimir Barmin, (1909–1993), Russia – first rocket launch complex (spaceport)
Anthony R. Barringer, Canada/U.S. – INPUT (Induced Pulse Transient) airborne electromagnetic system
Earl W. Bascom, (1906–1995), Canada/U.S. – side-delivery rodeo chute, hornless rodeo saddle, rodeo bareback rigging, rodeo chaps
Nikolay Basov, (1922–2001), Russia – co-inventor of laser and maser
Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius), (853-929), Syria/Turkey – observation tube
Eugen Baumann, (1846–1896), Germany – PVC
Trevor Baylis, (1937–), UK – a wind-up radio
Francis Beaufort, (1774–1857), France – Beaufort scale
Ernest Beaux, (1881–1961), Russia/France – Chanel No. 5
Arnold O. Beckman, (1900–2004), U.S. – pH meter
Ulugh Beg, 1394–1449, Persia/Iran – Fakhri sextant, mural sextant
Vladimir Bekhterev, (1857–1927), Russia – Bekhterev's Mixture
Alexander Graham Bell, (1847–1922), Canada, Scotland, and U.S. – telephone
Karl Benz, (1844–1929), Germany – the petrol-powered automobile, the carburetor[2][3]
Alexander Bereznyak, (1912–1974), Russia – first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)
Georgy Beriev, (1903–1979), Georgia/Russia – Be-series amphibious aircraft
Emile Berliner, (1851–1929), Germany and U.S. – the disc record gramophone
Nikolay Benardos, (1842–1905), Russia – arc welding (specifically carbon arc welding, the first arc welding method)
Tim Berners-Lee, (1955–), UK – with Robert Cailliau, the World Wide Web
Bi Sheng (Chinese:
畢昇), (ca. 990–1051), China – clay movable type printing
Gerd Binnig, (1947–), Germany – with Heinrich Rohrer, scanning tunneling microscope
Laszlo Biro, (1899–1985), Hungary – modern ballpoint pen
Clarence Birdseye, (1886–1956), U.S. – frozen food process
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, (973–1048), Persia/Iran – mechanical geared lunisolar calendar, laboratory and surveying equipment.
J. Stuart Blackton, (1875–1941), U.S. – stop-motion film
Otto Blathy (1860–1939), Hungary – co-inventor of the transformer, wattmeter, alternating current (AC) and turbogenerator
Fyodor Blinov, (1827–1902), Russia – first tracked vehicle, steam-powered continuous track tractor
Katharine B. Blodgett, (1898–1979), UK – nonreflective glass
Alan Blumlein, (1903–1942), England – stereo
Nils Bohlin, (1920–2002), Sweden – the three-point seat belt
Joseph-Armand Bombardier, (1907–1964), Canada – snowmobile
Sam Born, Russia/U.S. – lollipop-making machine
Satyendra Nath Bose, (1894–1974), India – work on gas-like properties of electromagnetic radiation, Boson and providing foundation for Bose-Einstein statistics and Bose-Einstein Condensate
Jagdish Chandra Bose, (1858–1937), India – Crescograph
George de Bothezat, (1882–1940), Russia/U.S. – quadrotor helicopter (The Flying Octopus)
Robert W. Bower, (1936–), U.S. – self-aligned–gate MOSFET
Seth Boyden, (1788–1870), U.S. – nail-making machine
Walter Houser Brattain, (1902–1987), U.S. – co-inventor of the transistor
Louis Braille, (1809–1852), France – the Braille writing system
Jacques E. Brandenberger, (1872–1954), Switzerland – Cellophane
Édouard Branly, (1844–1940), France – the coherer, the first widely used detector for radio communication.
Karl Ferdinand Braun, (1850–1918), Germany – cathode-ray tube oscilloscope
Harry Brearley, (1871–1948), UK – stainless steel
Sergey Brin, (1973–), Russia/U.S. – with Larry Page invented Google web search engine
Mikhail Britnev, (1822–1889), Russia – first metal-hull icebreaker (Pilot)
Rachel Fuller Brown, (1898–1980), U.S. – Nystatin, the world's first antifungal antibiotic
John Moses Browning, (1855–1926), U.S. – Semi-automatic pistol
Maria Christina Bruhn, (1732–1802), Sweden

Isambard Kingdom Brunel - The Great Eastern
Nikolay Brusentsov, (born 1925), Russia – ternary computer (Setun)
Edwin Beard Budding, (1795–1846), UK – lawnmower
Gersh Budker, (1918–1977), Russia – electron cooling, co-inventor of collider
Corliss Orville Burandt, U.S. – Variable valve timing
Henry Burden,(1791–1871) Scotland and U.S. – Horseshoe machine (made 60 horse shoes in a minute), first usable Iron Railed road spike, and builder of the most powerful waterwheel in history "Niagara of Water-Wheels"
Richard James Burgess, U.K. – Simmons (electronic drum company), co-inventor of SDS5 drum synthesizer



Robert Cailliau, (1947–), Belgium – with Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web
C`ai Lun,
蔡倫 (50–121 AD), China – paper
Marvin Camras, (1916–1995), U.S. – magnetic recording
Chester Carlson, (1906–1968), U.S. – Xerography
Wallace Carothers, (1896–1937), U.S. – Nylon
George Washington Carver, (1864–1943), U.S. - Peanut Butter
Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, (fl.1630–1634), Turkey – artificial wings
Joseph Constantine Carpue, (1764–1846), France – rhinoplastic surgery
George Cayley, (1773–1857), UK – glider, tension-spoke wheels, Caterpillar track
Roxey Ann Caplin, (1793–1888), UK – Corsets
Octave Chanute, (1832–1910), US – Civil Engineer
Dennis Charter, (1952–), Australia – secure electronic payment system for internet PaySafe
Vladimir Chelomey, (1914–1984), Russia – first space station (Salyut), Proton rocket (the most used heavy lift launch system)
Pavel Cherenkov, (1904–1990), Russia – Cherenkov detector
Adrian Chernoff, (1971–), U.S. – GM Autonomy, GM Hy-wire, Rubber Bandits
Evgeniy Chertovsky, (1902–), Russia – pressure suit
Alexander Chizhevsky, (1897–1964), Russia – air ionizer
Andrey Chokhov, (c. 1545–1629), Russia – Tsar Cannon
Niels Christensen (1865–1952), U.S. – O-ring
Samuel Hunter Christie, (1784–1865), UK – Wheatstone bridge
Juan de la Cierva, (1895–1936), Spain – the autogyro
Alexandru Ciurcu, (1854–1922), Romania – Reaction engine
Georges Claude, (1870–1960), France – neon lamp
Josephine Cochrane, (1839–1913), U.S. – dishwasher
Christopher Cockerell, (1910–1999), UK – Hovercraft
Aeneas Coffey, (1780–1852), Ireland – heat exchanger, Coffey still
Sir Henry Cole, (1808–1882), England – Christmas card
Samuel Colt, (1814–1862), U.S. – Revolver
George Constantinescu, (1881–1965), Romania – creator of the theory of sonics, a new branch of continuum mechanics
Lloyd Groff Copeman, (1865–1956), U.S. – Electric stove
Cornelis Corneliszoon, (1550–1607), The Netherlands – sawmill
Jacques Cousteau, (1910–1997), France – co-inventor of the aqualung and the Nikonos underwater camera
Thomas Crapper, (1836–1910), England – ballcock (toilet valve)
Bartolomeo Cristofori, (1655–1731), Italy – piano
János Csonka, (1852–1939), Hungary – co-inventor of carburetor
Raul Cuero, (1948-), Buenaventura, Colombia, see Inventions and patents list
Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, (1725–1804), France – first steam-powered road vehicle
William Cumberland Cruikshank, (1745–1800), UK – chlorinated water
William Cullen, (1710–1790), UK – first artificial refrigerator
Glenn Curtiss, (1878–1930), U.S. – ailerons
John Wesley Hyatt, (1837–1920), U.S. – celluloid manufacturing.



Gustaf Dalén, (1869–1937), Sweden – AGA cooker; Dalén light; Agamassan
Salvino D'Armate, (1258–1312), Italy – credited for inventing eyeglasses in 1284
Leonardo da Vinci, (1452–1519), Italy – conceptualized a helicopter, a tank, concentrated solar power, the double hull. Relatively few of his designs were constructed during his lifetime. Some that were used are an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire
Corradino D'Ascanio, (1891–1981), Italy – D'AT3 helicopter; Vespa scooter
Jacob Davis, (1868–1908), U.S. – riveted jeans
Edmund Davy, (1785–1857), Ireland – acetylene
Humphry Davy, (1778–1829), UK – Davy miners lamp
Joseph Day, (1855–1946), UK – the crankcase-compression two-stroke engine
Lee DeForest, (1873–1961), U.S. – triode
Vasily Degtyaryov, (1880–1949), Russia – first self-loading carbine, Degtyaryov-series firearms, co-developer of Fedorov Avtomat
Akinfiy Demidov, (1678–1745), Russia – co-developer of rebar, cast iron dome, lightning rod (all found in the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk)
Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk, (1927–2006), Russia – 3D holography
Miksa Deri (1854–1938), Hungary – co-inventor of an improved closed-core transformer
James Dewar, (1842–1923), UK – Thermos flask
Aleksandr Dianin, (1851–1918), Russia – Bisphenol A, Dianin's compound
William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, (1860–1935), UK – motion picture camera
Philip Diehl, (1847–1913), U.S. – Ceiling fan, electric sewing machine
Rudolf Diesel, (1858–1913), Germany – Diesel engine
Al-Dinawari, (828-896), Persia/Iran – more than a hundred plant drugs
William H. Dobelle, (1943–2004), United States – first functioning artificial eye
Ray Dolby, (1933-), U.S. – Dolby noise-reduction system
Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, (1862–1919),Poland/Russia – three-phase electric power (first 3-phase hydroelectric power plant, 3-phase electrical generator, 3-phase motor and 3-phase transformer)
Nikolay Dollezhal, (1899–2000),Russia – AM-1 reactor for the 1st nuclear power plant, other RBMK reactors, VVER pressurized water reactors
Bryan Donkin, (1768–1855), UK – print industry composition roller
Hub van Doorne, (1900–1979), Netherlands, Variomatic continuously variable transmission
Anastase Dragomir, (1896–1966), Romania – Ejection seat
Karl Drais, (1785–1851), Germany – dandy horse (Draisine)
Cornelius Drebbel, (1572–1633), The Netherlands – first navigable submarine
Richard Drew, (1899–1980), U.S. – Masking tape
John Boyd Dunlop, (1840–1921) UK – first practical pneumatic tyre
Cyril Duquet, (1841–1922) Canada – Telephone handset
Alexey Dushkin, (1904–1977), Russia – deep column station
James Dyson, (1947– ) UK – Dual Cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, incorporating the principles of cyclonic separation.



George Eastman, (1854–1932), U.S. – roll film
J. Presper Eckert, (1919–1995), U.S. – ENIAC - the first general purpose programmable digital computer
Thomas Edison, (1847–1931), U.S. – phonograph, commercially practical light bulb, stock ticker, ticker-tape machine etc.
Willem Einthoven, (1860–1927), The Netherlands – the electrocardiogram
Ivan Elmanov, Russia – first monorail (horse-drawn)
Rune Elmqvist, (1906–1996), Sweden – implantable pacemaker
John Haven Emerson, (1906–1997), U.S. – iron lung
Douglas Engelbart, (1925–), U.S. – the computer mouse
John Ericsson, (1803–1889), Sweden – the two screw-propeller
Lars Magnus Ericsson, (1846–1926), Sweden – the handheld micro telephone[citation needed]
Ole Evinrude, (1877–1934), Norway – outboard motor




Henry Ford




Samuel Face, (1923–2001), U.S. – concrete flatness/levelness technology; Lightning Switch
Federico Faggin, (1941–), Italy – microprocessor
Michael Faraday, (1791–1867), England – electric transformer, electric motor
Johann Maria Farina, (1685–1766), Germany; Eau de Cologne
Philo Farnsworth, (1906–1971), U.S. – electronic television
Muhammad al-Fazari, (d. 796/806), Persia/Iran/Iraq – brass astrolabe
James Fergason, (1934–), U.S. – improved liquid crystal display
Enrico Fermi, (1901–1954), Italy – nuclear reactor
Humberto Fernández Morán, (1924–1999), Venezuela – Diamond scalpel, Ultra microtome
Reginald Fessenden, (1866–1932), Canada – two-way radio
Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick, (1829–1901), Germany – contact lens
Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), (810-887), Al-Andalus – artificial wings, fused quartz and silica glass, metronome
Artur Fischer, (1919–) Germany – fasteners including fischertechnik.
Gerhard Fischer, Germany/U.S. – hand-held metal detector
Nicolas Florine, (1891–1972), Georgia/Russia/Belgium – first tandem rotor helicopter to fly freely
Robert Fulton, (1765–1815), United States – first commercially successful steamboat, first practical submarine
Alexander Fleming, (1881–1955), Scotland – penicillin
John Ambrose Fleming, (1848–1945), England – vacuum diode
Sandford Fleming, (1827–1915), Canada – Universal Standard Time
Tommy Flowers, (1905–1998), England – Colossus an early electronic computer.
Jean Bernard Léon Foucault, (1819–1868), France – Foucault pendulum, gyroscope, eddy current

Henry Ford - (1863–1947) American who revolutionized assembly-line modes of production for the automobile
Benoît Fourneyron, (1802–1867), France – water turbine
John Fowler, (1826–1864), England – steam-driven ploughing engine
Benjamin Franklin, (1706–1790), U.S. – the pointed lightning rod conductor, bifocas, Franklin stove & glass harmonica
Augustin-Jean Fresnel, (1788–1827), France – Fresnel lens
William Friese-Greene, (1855–1921), England – cinematography
Buckminster Fuller, (1895–1983), U.S. – geodesic dome
Ivan Fyodorov, (c. 1510–1583), Russia/Poland–Lithuania – invented multibarreled mortar, introduced printing in Russia
Svyatoslav Fyodorov, (1927–2000), Russia – radial keratotomy
Vladimir Fyodorov, (1874–1966), Russia – Fedorov Avtomat (first self-loading battle rifle, arguably the first assault rifle)



Dennis Gabor, (1900–1979), UK – holography
Boris Borisovich Galitzine, (1862–1916), Russia – electromagnetic seismograph
Dmitri Garbuzov, (1940–2006), Russia/U.S. – continuous-wave-operating diode lasers (together with Zhores Alferov), high-power diode lasers
Elmer R. Gates, (1859–1923), USA – foam fire extinguisher, electric loom mechanisms, magnetic & diamagnetic separators, educational toy ("box & blocks")
Richard J. Gatling, (1818–1903), U.S. – wheat drill, first successful machine gun
Georgy Gause, (1910–1986), Russia – gramicidin S, neomycin, lincomycin and other antibiotics
E. K. Gauzen, Russia – three bolt equipment (early diving costume)
Hans Wilhelm Geiger, (1882–1945), Germany – Geiger counter
Andrey Geim, (born 1958), Russia/United Kingdom – graphene
Nestor Genko, (1839–1904), Russia – Genko's Forest Belt (the first large-scale windbreak system)
Henri Giffard, (1825–1882), France – powered airship, injector
Valentyn Glushko, (1908–1989), Russia – hypergolic propellant, electric propulsion, Soviet rocket engines (including world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170)
Heinrich Göbel, (1818–1893), Germany – incandescent lamp
Leonid Gobyato, (1875–1915), Russia – first modern man-portable mortar
Robert Goddard, (1882–1945), U.S. – liquid fuel rocket
Igor Gorynin, (1926), Russia – weldable titanium alloys, high strength aluminium alloys, radiation-hardened steels
Peter Carl Goldmark, (1906–1977), Hungary – vinyl record (LP), CBS color television
Charles Goodyear, (1800–1860), U.S. – vulcanization of rubber
Gordon Gould, (1920–2005), U.S. – co-inventor of laser
Richard Hall Gower, (1768–1833), England – ship's hull and rigging
Boris Grabovsky, (1901–1966), Russia – cathode commutator, an early electronic TV pickup tube
Bette Nesmith Graham, (1924–1980), U.S. – Liquid Paper
Temple Grandin, (1945-), Inventor of the squeeze machine and humane abattoirs.
James Henry Greathead, (1844–1896), South Africa – tunnel boring machine, tunnelling shield technique
Chester Greenwood, (1858–1937), U.S. – thermal earmuffs
James Gregory, (1638–1675), Scotland – Gregorian telescope
William Robert Grove, (1811–1896), Wales – fuel cell
Gustav Guanella, (1909-1982), Switzerland - DSSS, Guanella-Balun
Otto von Guericke, (1602–1686), Germany – vacuum pump, manometer, dasymeter
Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, (1738–1814), France – Guillotine, a device for human decapitation
Mikhail Gurevich, (1893–1976), Russia – MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Artem Mikoyan)
Johann Gutenberg, (c. 1390s–1468), Germany – movable type printing press
Samuel Guthrie, (1782–1848), U.S. – discovered chloroform



John Hadley, (1682–1744), England – Octant
Waldemar Haffkine, (1860–1930), Russia/Switzerland – first anti-cholera and anti-plague vaccines
Tracy Hall, (1919–2008 ), U.S. – synthetic diamond
John Hays Hammond, Jr., (1888–1965), U.S. - radio control
James Hargreaves, (1720–1778), England – spinning jenny
John Harington, (1561–1612), England – the flush toilet
John Harrison, (1693–1776), England – marine chronometer
Victor Hasselblad, (1906–1978), Sweden – invented the 6 x 6 cm single-lens reflex camera
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), (965–1039), Iraq – camera obscura, pinhole camera, magnifying glass
George H. Heilmeier, (1936–), U.S. – liquid crystal display (LCD)
Robert A. Heinlein, (1907–1988), U.S. – waterbed
Jozef Karol Hell, (1713–1789), Slovakia – the water pillar
Rudolf Hell, (1901–2002), Germany – the Hellschreiber
Joseph Henry, (1797–1878), Scotland/U.S. – electromagnetic relay
Heron, (c. 10-70), Roman Egypt – usually credited with invention of the aeolipile, although it may have been described a century earlier
John Herschel, (1792–1871), England – photographic fixer (hypo), actinometer
William Herschel, (1738–1822), England – infrared
Heinrich Hertz, (1857–1894), Germany – radio telegraphy, electromagnetic radiation
George de Hevesy, (1885–1966), Hungary – radioactive tracer
Rowland Hill, (1795–1879), UK – postage stamp
Maurice Hilleman, (1919–2005) – vaccines against childhood diseases
Ted Hoff, (1937–), U.S. – microprocessor
Felix Hoffmann (Bayer), (1868–1949), Germany – Aspirin
Albert Hofmann, (1906–2008), Switzerland - LSD
Herman Hollerith, (1860–1929), U.S. – recording data on a machine readable medium, tabulator, punched cards
Nick Holonyak, (1928– ), U.S. – LED (Light Emitting Diode)
Robert Hooke, (1635–1703), England – balance wheel, iris diaphragm
Erna Schneider Hoover, (1926–), U.S. – computerized telephone switching system
Frank Hornby, (1863–1936), England – invented Meccano
Coenraad Johannes van Houten, (1801–1887), Netherlands – cocoa powder, cacao butter, chocolate milk
Elias Howe, (1819–1867), U.S. – sewing machine
Muhammad Husayn, (fl.17th century), Persia/Iran – cartographic Qibla indicator with sundial and compass
Christiaan Huygens, (1629–1695), Netherlands – pendulum clock



Gavriil Ilizarov, (1921–1992), Russia – Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis
Sergey Ilyushin, (1894–1977), Russia – Il-series aircraft, including Ilyushin Il-2 bomber (the most produced military aircraft in history)
János Irinyi, (1817–1895), Hungary – noiseless match
Aleksei Isaev, (1908–1971), Russia – first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)
Ub Iwerks, (1901–1971), U. S. – Multiplane camera for animation



Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber), (c. 1100–1150), Islamic Spain – portable celestial globe
Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber), (c. 721-815), Persia/Iran – pure distillation, liquefaction, purification, retort, mineral acids, nitric and sulfuric acids, hydrochloric acid, aqua regia, alum, alkali, borax, pure sal ammoniac, lead carbonatic, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, pure mercury and sulfur, plated mail
Moritz von Jacobi, (1801–1874), Germany/Russia – electrotyping, electric boat
Karl Guthe Jansky, (1905–1950), U.S. – radio telescope
Karl Jatho, (1873–1933), Germany – aeroplane
Al-Jazari, (1136–1206), Iraq – crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pump, crank-driven screw and screwpump, elephant clock, weight-driven clock, weight-driven pump, reciprocating piston suction pump, geared and hydropowered water supply system, programmable humanoid robots, robotics, hand washing automata, flush mechanism, lamination, static balancing, paper model, sand casting, molding sand, intermittency, linkage
Ibn Al-Jazzar (Algizar), (c. 898-980), Tunisia – sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction treatment drugs
Steve Jobs, (1955–2011), U.S. – Apple Macintosh computer, iPod, iPhone, iPad and countless other devices and software operating systems and applications
Charles Francis Jenkins, (1867–1934) – television and movie projector (Phantoscope)
Carl Edvard Johansson, (1864–1943), Sweden – Gauge blocks
Johan Petter Johansson, (1853–1943), Sweden – the pipe wrench and the modern adjustable spanner
Nancy Johnson, U.S. – American version of the hand cranked ice cream machine in (1843)
Scott A. Jones, (1960–), U.S. – created one of the most successful versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted internet search engine.
Whitcomb Judson, (1836–1909), U.S. – zipper



Mikhail Kalashnikov, (1919–), Russia – AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (the most produced ever)
Kaldi, (fl.9th century), Ethiopia – coffee
Dean Kamen, (1951–), U.S. – Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility Device
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, (1853–1926), Netherlands – liquid helium
Nikolay Kamov, (1902–1973), Russia – armored battle autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters
Pyotr Kapitsa, (1894–1984), Russia – first ultrastrong magnetic field creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions
Georgii Karpechenko, (1899–1941), Russia – rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)
Jamshīd al-Kāshī, (c. 1380–1429), Persia/Iran – plate of conjunctions, analog planetary computer
Yevgeny Kaspersky, (1965–), Russia – Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products
Adolphe Kégresse, (1879–1943), France/Russia – Kégresse track (first half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual clutch transmission
Mstislav Keldysh, (1911–1978), Latvia/Russia – co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Tikhonravov
John Harvey Kellogg, (1852–1943), cornflake breakfasts
John George Kemeny, (1926–1992), Hungary – co-inventor of BASIC
Alexander Kemurdzhian, (1921–2003), Russia – first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)
Kerim Kerimov, (1917–2003), Azerbaijan and Russia – co-developer of human spaceflight, space dock, space station
Charles F. Kettering, (1876–1958), U.S. – invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and more
Fazlur Khan, (1929–1982), Bangladesh – structural systems for high-rise skyscrapers
Yulii Khariton, (1904–1996), Russia – chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb
Anatoly Kharlampiev, (1906–1979), Russia – Sambo (martial art)
Al-Khazini, (fl.1115–1130), Persia/Iran – hydrostatic balance
Konstantin Khrenov, (1894–1984), Russia – underwater welding
Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, (c. 940–1000), Persia/Iran – astronomical sextant
Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algoritmi), (c. 780-850), Persia/Iran – modern algebra, mural instrument, horary quadrant, Sine quadrant, shadow square
Erhard Kietz, (1909–1982), Germany & U.S.A. – signal improvements for video transmissions
Jack Kilby, (1923–2005), U.S. – patented the first integrated circuit
Al-Kindi (Alkindus), (801–873), Iraq/Yemen – ethanol, pure distilled alcohol, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis
Fritz Klatte, (1880–1934), Germany – vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chloride
Margaret E. Knight, (1838–1914), U.S. – machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bags
Ivan Knunyants, (1906–1990), Armenia/Russia – capron, Nylon 6, polyamide-6

Nelson Kruschandl - Joystick car controls - Electric vehicle refueling system
Robert Koch, (1843–1910), Germany – method for culturing bacteria on solid media
Willem Johan Kolff, (1911–2009), Netherlands – artificial kidney hemodialysis machine
Rudolf Kompfner, (1909–1977), U.S. – Traveling-wave tube
Konstantin Konstantinov, (1817 or 1819–1871), Russia – device for measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch pad, rocket-making machine
Sergey Korolyov, (1907–1966), Ukraine/Russia – first successful intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok program (including the first human spaceflight)
Nikolai Korotkov, (1874–1920), Russia – auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement
Semen Korsakov, (1787–1853), Russia – punched card for information storage
Mikhail Koshkin, (1898–1940), Russia – T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II
Ognjeslav Kostović, (1851–1916), Serbia/Russia – arborite (high-strength plywood, an early plastic)
Gleb Kotelnikov, (1872–1944), Russia – knapsack parachute, drogue parachute
Alexei Krylov, (1863–1945), Russia – gyroscopic damping of ships
Ivan Kulibin, (1735–1818), Russia – egg-shaped clock, candle searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, a self-rolling carriage featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing, an early optical telegraph
Igor Kurchatov, (1903–1960), Russia – first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships
Raymond Kurzweil, (1948–), Optical character recognition; flatbed scanner
Stephanie Kwolek, (1923–), U.S. – Kevlar
John Howard Kyan (1774–1850), Ireland – The process of Kyanization used for wood preservation



Dmitry Lachinov, (1842–1902), Russia – mercury pump, economizer for electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical dynamometer, photometer, elecrolyser
René Laënnec, (1781–1826), France – stethoscope
Lala Balhumal Lahuri, (c. 1842), Mughal India – seamless globe and celestial globe
Georges Lakhovsky, (1869–1942), Russia/U.S. – Multiple Wave Oscillator
Hedy Lamarr, (1913–2000), Austria and U.S. – Spread spectrum radio
Edwin H. Land, (1909–1991), U.S. – Polaroid polarizing filters and the Land Camera
Samuel P. Langley, (1834–1906), U.S. – bolometer
Irving Langmuir, (1851–1957), U.S. – gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen welding
Lewis Latimer, (1848–1928), – Invented the modern day light bulb
Gustav de Laval, (1845–1913), Sweden – invented the milk separator and the milking machine
Semyon Lavochkin, (1900–1960), Russia – La-series aircraft, first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut
John Bennet Lawes, (1814–1900), England – superphosphate or chemical fertilizer
Nikolai Lebedenko, Russia – Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history
Sergei Lebedev, (1874–1934), Russia – commercially viable synthetic rubber
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, (1632–1723), Netherlands – development of the microscope
Jerome H. Lemelson, (1923–1997), U.S – Inventions in the fields in which he patented make possible, wholly or in part, innovations like automated warehouses, industrial robots, cordless telephones, fax machines, videocassette recorders, camcorders, and the magnetic tape drive used in Sony's Walkman tape players.
Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir, (1822–1900), Belgium – internal combustion engine, motorboat
R. G. LeTourneau, (1888–1969), U.S.- electric wheel, motor scraper, mobile oil drilling platform, bulldozer, cable control unit for scrapers
Willard Frank Libby, (1908–1980), U.S. – radiocarbon dating
Justus von Liebig, (1803–1873), Germany – nitrogen-based fertilizer
Otto Lilienthal, (1848–1896), Germany – hang glider
Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist, (1862–1931), Sweden – Kerosene stove operated by compressed air
Hans Lippershey, (1570–1619), Netherlands – telescope
Lisitsyn brothers, Ivan Fyodorovich and Nazar Fyodorovich, Russia – samovar (the first documented makers)
William Howard Livens, (1889–1964), England – chemical warfare – Livens Projector.
Alexander Lodygin, (1847–1923), Russia – electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament
Mikhail Lomonosov, (1711–1765), Russia – night vision telescope, off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, re-invented smalt
Yury Lomonosov, (1876–1952), Russia/United Kingdom – first successful mainline diesel locomotive
Aleksandr Loran, (1849 – after 1911), Russia – fire fighting foam, foam extinguisher
Oleg Losev, (1903–1942), Russia – light-emitting diode, crystadine
Archibald Low, (1882–1956), Britain – Pioneer of radio guidance systems
Auguste and Louis Lumière, France – Cinématographe
Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy, (1909–2001), Russia – Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project
Ignacy Łukasiewicz, (1822–1882), Poland – modern kerosene lamp
Giovanni Luppis, (1813–1875), Austrian Empire (ethnical Italian) – self-propelled torpedo
Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman, (fl.1589–1590), Mughal India – seamless globe and celestial globe
Arkhip Lyulka, (1908–1984), Russia – first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft engines



Ma Jun, (c. 200–265), China – South Pointing Chariot (see differential gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk looms
Aleksandr Makarov, Russia/Germany – Orbitrap mass spectrometer
Stepan Makarov, (1849–1904), Russia – Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice
Nestor Makhno, (1888–1934), Ukraine/Russia – tachanka
Charles Macintosh, (1766–1843), Scotland – waterproof raincoat, life vest
Victor Makeev, (1924–1985), Russia – first submarine-launched ballistic missile
Dmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov, (1896–1964), Russia – Maksutov telescope
Sergey Malyutin, (1859–1937), Russia – designed the first matryoshka doll (together with Vasily Zvyozdochkin)
Al-Ma'mun, (786-833), Iraq – singing bird automata, terrestrial globe
Boris Mamyrin, (1919–2007), Russia – reflectron (ion mirror)
George William Manby, (1765–1854), England – Fire extinguisher
Guglielmo Marconi, (1874–1937), Italy – radio telegraphy
John Landis Mason, (1826–1902), U.S. – Mason jars
John W. Mauchly, (1907–1980), U.S. – ENIAC - the first general purpose programmable digital computer
Henry Maudslay, (1771–1831), England – screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometer
Hiram Maxim, (1840–1916), USA born, England – First self-powered machine gun
James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) and Thomas Sutton, Scotland – color photography
Stanley Mazor, (1941-), U.S. – microprocessor
John McAdam, (1756–1836), Scotland – improved "macadam" road surface
Elijah McCoy, (1843–1929), Canada – Displacement lubricator
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, (1845–1916), Russia – probiotics
Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés, (1817–1880), France – margarine
Dmitri Mendeleev, (1834–1907), Russia – Periodic table, pycnometer, pyrocollodion, also credited with determining the ideal vodka proof as 38% (later rounded to 40%)
Antonio Meucci, (1808–1889), Italy – telephone (prototype)
Édouard Michelin, (1859–1940), France – pneumatic tire
Anthony Michell, (1870–1959), Australia – tilting pad thrust bearing, crankless engine
Artem Mikoyan, (1905—1970), Armenia/Russia – MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)
Alexander Mikulin, (1895–1985), Russia – Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank
Mikhail Mil, (1909—1970), Russia – Mi-series helicopter aircraft, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)
Pavel Molchanov, (1893–1941), Russia – radiosonde
Jules Montenier, (c. 1910), U.S. – modern anti-perspirant deodorant
Montgolfier brothers, (1740–1810) and (1745–1799), France – hot air balloon
John J. Montgomery, (1858–1911), U.S. – heavier-than-air gliders
Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol, (1819–1885), Spain – steam powered submarine
Robert Moog, (1934–2005), U.S. – the Moog synthesizer
Roland Moreno, (1945–2012), France - inventor of the smart card
Samuel Morey, (1762–1843), U.S. – internal combustion engine
Garrett A. Morgan, (1877–1963), U.S. – inventor of the gas mask, and traffic signal.
Samuel Morse, (1791–1872), U.S. – telegraph
Alexander Morozov, (1904–1979), Russia – T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34
Sergei Ivanovich Mosin, (1849–1902), Russia – Mosin–Nagant rifle
Motorins, Ivan Feodorovich (1660s – 1735) and his son Mikhail Ivanovich (?–1750), Russia – Tsar Bell
Vera Mukhina, (1889–1953), Russia – welded sculpture
Al-Muqaddasi, (c. 946–1000), Palestine – restaurant
Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi, (fl.11th century), Islamic Spain – geared mechanical clock, segmental gear, epicyclic gearing
William Murdoch, (1754–1839), Scotland – Gas lighting
Jozef Murgas, (1864–1929), Slovakia – inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)
Evgeny Murzin, (1914–1970), Russia – ANS synthesizer
Banū Mūsā brothers, Muhammad (c. 800-873), Ahmad (803-873), Al-Hasan (810-873), Iraq – mechanical trick devices, hurricane lamp, self-trimming and self-feeding lamp, gas mask, clamshell grab, fail-safe system, mechanical musical instrument, automatic flute player, programmable machine
Pieter van Musschenbroek, (1692–1761), Netherlands – Leyden jar, pyrometer
Eadweard Muybridge, (1830–1904), England – motion picture
Fe del Mundo,(1941), The Philippines - medical incubator made out of bamboo for use in rural communities without electrical power



Alexander Nadiradze, (1914–1987), Georgia/Russia – first mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S), first reliable mobile ICBM (RT-2PM Topol)
John Napier, (1550–1617), Scotland – logarithms
James Naismith, (1861–1939), Canadian born, USA – invented basketball and American football helmet
Yoshiro Nakamatsu, (b. 1928), Japan – floppy disk, "PyonPyon" spring shoes, digital watch, CinemaScope, armchair "Cerebrex", sauce pump, taxicab meter
Andrey Nartov, (1683–1756), Russia – first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears, fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge-boring lathe for cannon-making, early telescopic sight
James Nasmyth, (1808–1890), Scotland – steam hammer
Nebuchadrezzar II, (c. 630–562 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) – screw, screwpump
Ted Nelson, (1937–), USA – Hypertext, Hypermedia
Sergey Nepobedimiy, (1921–), Russia – first supersonic anti-tank guided missile Sturm, other Soviet rocket weaponry
John von Neumann, (1903–1957), Hungary – Von Neumann computer architecture
Isaac Newton,(1642–1727), England – reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)
Joseph Nicephore Niépce, (1765–1833), France – photography
Nikolai Nikitin, (1907–1973), Russia – prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure (Ostankino Tower), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project (precursor to X-Seed 4000)
Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, (1860–1940), Germany – Nipkow disk
Jun-Ichi Nishizawa, (1926–), Japan – Optical communication system, SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diode
Alfred Nobel, (1833–1896), Sweden – dynamite
Ludvig Nobel, (1831–1888), Sweden/Russia – first successful oil tanker
Jean-Antoine Nollet, (1700–1770), France – Electroscope
Carl Rickard Nyberg, (1858–1939), Sweden – the blowtorch



Theophil Wilgodt Odhner, (1845–1903), Sweden/Russia – the Odhner Arithmometer, a mechanical calculator
Paul Offit, United States, along with Fred Clark and Stanley Plotkin, invented a pentavalent Rotavirus vaccine
Ransom Eli Olds, (1864–1950), United States – Assembly line
Lucien Olivier, (1838–1883), Belgium or France / Russia – Russian salad (Olivier salad)
J. Robert Oppenheimer, (1904–1967), United States – Atomic bomb
Edward Otho Cresap Ord, II, (1858–1923) American – weapon sights & mining
Hans Christian Ørsted, (1777–1851), Denmark – electromagnetism, aluminium
Elisha Otis, (1811–1861), U.S. – passenger elevator with safety device
William Oughtred, (1575–1660), England – slide rule



Larry Page, (1973–), U.S. – with Sergey Brin invented Google web search engine
Alexey Pajitnov, (born 1956), Russia/U.S. – Tetris
Helge Palmcrantz, (1842–1880), Sweden – the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun
Daniel David Palmer, (1845–1913), Canada – chiropractic
Luigi Palmieri, (1807–1896), Italy – seismometer
Philip M. Parker, (1960–), U.S. – computer automated book authoring
Alexander Parkes, (1831–1890), England – celluloid
Charles Algernon Parsons, (1854–1931), British – steam turbine
Spede Pasanen, (1930–2001), Finland – ski jumping sling
Blaise Pascal, (1623–1662), France – Pascal's calculator
Gustaf Erik Pasch, (1788–1862), Sweden – safety match
Les Paul, (1915–2009), U.S. – multitrack recording
Nicolae Paulescu, (1869–1931), Romania – insulin
Ivan Pavlov, (1849–1936), Russia, – classical conditioning
John Pemberton, (1831–1888), U.S. – Coca-Cola
Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, (1871–1922), Croatia – mechanical pencil
Henry Perky, (1843–1906), U.S. – shredded wheat
Stephen Perry, England – rubber band
Aurel Persu, Romania – first aerodynamic car, aluminum body with wheels included under the body, 1922
Vladimir Petlyakov, (1891–1942), Russia – heavy bomber
Peter Petroff, (1919–2004), Bulgaria – digital wrist watch, heart monitor, weather instruments
Fritz Pfleumer, (1881–1945), Germany – magnetic tape
Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, (1810–1881), Russia – early use of ether as anaesthetic, first anaesthesia in a field operation, various kinds of surgical operations
Fyodor Pirotsky, (1845–1898), Russia – electric tram
Arthur Pitney, (1871–1933), United States – postage meter
Joseph Plateau, (1801–1883), Belgium – phenakistiscope (stroboscope)
Baltzar von Platen, (1898–1984), Sweden – gas absorption refrigerator
James Leonard Plimpton, U.S. – roller skates
Ivan Plotnikov, (1902–1995), Russia – kirza leather
Petrache Poenaru, (1799–1875), Romania – fountain pen
Christopher Polhem, (1661–1751), Sweden – the modern padlock
Nikolai Polikarpov, (1892–1944), Russia – Po-series aircraft, including Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik[disambiguation needed] (world's most produced biplane)
Eugene Polley, (1915–2012), United States – wireless remote control (with Robert Adler)
Ivan Polzunov, (1728–1766), Russia – first two-cylinder steam engine
Mikhail Pomortsev, (1851–1916), Russia – nephoscope
Olivia Poole, (1889–1975), U.S., – the Jolly Jumper baby harness
Alexander Popov, (1859–1906), Russia – lightning detector (the first lightning prediction system and radio receiver), co-inventor of radio
Nikolay Popov, (1931–2008), Russia – first fully gas turbine main battle tank (T-80)
Aleksandr Porokhovschikov, (1892–1941), Russia – Vezdekhod (the first prototype tank, or tankette, and the first caterpillar amphibious ATV)
Valdemar Poulsen, (1869–1942), Denmark – magnetic wire recorder, arc converter
Joseph Priestley, (1733–1804), England – soda water
Alexander Procofieff de Seversky, 1894–1974, Russia/United States of America – first gyroscopically stabilized bombsight, ionocraft, also developed air-to-air refueling
Alexander Prokhorov, (1916–2002), Russia – co-inventor of laser and maser
Petro Prokopovych, (1775–1850), Ukraine/Russia – early beehive frame, queen excluder and other beekeeping novelties
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, (1863–1944), Russia/France – early colour photography method based on three colour channels, also colour film slides and colour motion pictures
George Pullman, (1831–1897), U.S. – Pullman sleep wagon
Michael I. Pupin, (1858–1935), Serbia – pupinization (loading coils), tunable oscillator
Tivadar Puskas, (1844–1893), Hungary – telephone exchange



Hasan al-Rammah, (fl.1270s), Syria – purified potassium nitrate, explosive gunpowder, torpedo
Harun al-Rashid, (763-809), Persia/Iran – public hospital, medical school
Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes), (865–965), Persia/Iran – distillation and extraction methods, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, soap kerosene, kerosene lamp, chemotherapy, sodium hydroxide
Alec Reeves, (1902–1971), UK -- Pulse-code modulation
Karl von Reichenbach, (1788–1869), paraffin, creosote oil, phenol
Ira Remsen, (1846–1927), U.S. – saccharin
Ralf Reski, (* 1958), Germany – Moss bioreactor 1998
Josef Ressel, (1793–1857), Czechoslovakia – ship propeller
Charles Francis Richter, (1900–1985), U.S. – Richter magnitude scale
Adolph Rickenbacker, (1886–1976), Switzerland – Electric guitar
Hyman George Rickover, (1900–1986), U.S. – Nuclear submarine
John Roebuck, (1718–1794) England – lead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesis
Heinrich Rohrer, (1933–), Switzerland – with Gerd Binnig, scanning tunneling microscope
Peter I the Great (Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov), Tsar and Emperor of Russia, (1672–1725), Russia – decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet (sounding weight probe)
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, (1845–1923), Germany – the X-ray machine
Ida Rosenthal, (1886–1973), Belarus/Russia/United States – modern brassiere (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra, full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband William)
Boris Rosing, (1869–1933), Russia – CRT television (first TV system using CRT on the receiving side)
Eugene Roshal, (born 1972), Russia – FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver
Ernő Rubik, (1944–), Hungary – Rubik's Cube, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's Clock
Ernst Ruska, (1906–1988), Germany – electron microscope



Alexander Sablukov, (1783–1857), Russia – centrifugal fan
Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu, (1385–1468), Turkey – illustrated surgical atlas
Andrei Sakharov, (1921–1989), Russia – invented explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developed the Tsar Bomb and tokamak
Ibn Samh, (c. 1020), Middle East – mechanical geared astrolabe
Franz San Galli, (1824–1908), Poland/Russia (Italian and German descent) – radiator, modern central heating
Alberto Santos-Dumont, (1873–1932), Brazil – non-rigid airship and airplane
Arthur William Savage, (1857–1938) – radial tires, gun magazines, Savage Model 99 lever action rifle
Thomas Savery, (1650–1715), England – steam engine
Adolphe Sax, (1814–1894), Belgium – saxophone
Bela Schick, (1877–1967), Hungary – diphtheria test
Pavel Schilling, (1786–1837), Estonia/Russia – first electromagnetic telegraph, mine with an electric fuse
Masatoshi Shima, (1943–), Japan – microprocessor
Christian Schnabel (1878–1936), German – simplistic food cutleries
Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (1946- ), Netherlands – Major contributor to development of Compact Disc
August Schrader, U.S. – Schrader valve for Pneumatic tire
David Schwarz, (1852–1897), Croatia, – rigid ship, later called Zeppelin
Marc Seguin, (1786–1875), France – wire-cable suspension bridge
Sennacherib, (705–681 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) – screw pump
Iwan Serrurier, (active 1920s), Netherlands/U.S. – inventor of the Moviola for film editing
Mark Serrurier, (190?–1988), U.S. – Serrurier truss for Optical telescopes
Gerhard Sessler, (1931–), Germany – foil electret microphone, silicon microphone
Guy Severin, (1926–2008), Russia – extra-vehicular activity supporting system
Robert William John Shannon, (1962-), N.Z. - Wellness Predictor, POS-Receipt, Personal Document Management System
Leonty Shamshurenkov, (1687–1758), Russia – first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an original odometer and self-propelling sledge
Ibn al-Shatir, (1304–1375), Syria – "jewel box" device which combined a compass with a universal sundial
Shen Kuo, (1031–1095), China – improved gnomon, armillary sphere, clepsydra, and sighting tube
Murasaki Shikibu, (c. 973–1025), Japan – novel, psychological novel
Pyotr Shilovsky, (1871 – after 1924), Russia/United Kingdom – gyrocar
Fathullah Shirazi, (c. 1582), Mughal India – early volley gun
William Bradford Shockley, (1910–1989), U.S. – co-inventor of transistor
Henry Shrapnel, (1761–1842), England – Shrapnel shell ammunition
Vladimir Shukhov, (1853–1939), Russia – thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, modern oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot
Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, (b. 1972), Malaysia – cell growth in outer space, crystallization of proteins and microbes in space
Augustus Siebe, (1788–1872), Germany/England – Inventor of the standard diving dress
Sir William Siemens, (1823–1883), Germany – regenerative furnace
Werner von Siemens, (1816–1892), Germany – an electromechanical "dynamic"
Al-Sijzi, (c. 945–1020), Persia/Iran – heliocentric astrolabe
Igor Sikorsky, (1889–1972), Russia/U.S. – first four-engine fixed-wing aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber (Ilya Muromets), modern helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters
Kia Silverbrook, (1958-), Australia – Memjet printer, world's most prolific inventor
Vladimir Simonov, (born 1935), Russia – APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol
Charles Simonyi, (1948–), Hungary – Hungarian notation
Ibn Sina (Avicenna), (973–1037), Persia/Iran – steam distillation, essential oil, pharmacopoeia, clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, quarantine, cancer surgery, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, phytotherapy, Hindiba, Taxus baccata L, calcium channel blocker
Isaac Singer, (1811–1875), U.S. – sewing machine
B. F. Skinner, (1904–1990), U.S. -- Operant conditioning chamber
Nikolay Slavyanov, (1854–1897), Russia – shielded metal arc welding
Alexander Smakula, (1900–1983), Ukraine/Russia/U.S. – anti-reflective coating
Yefim Smolin, Russia – table-glass (stakan granyonyi)
Igor Spassky, (1926–), Russia – Sea Launch platform
Percy Spencer, (1894–1970), U.S. – microwave oven
Elmer Ambrose Sperry, (1860–1930), U.S. – gyroscope-guided automatic pilot
Ladislas Starevich, (1882–1965), Russia/France – puppet animation, live-action/animated film
Gary Starkweather, (1938–), U.S. – laser printer, color management
Boris Stechkin, (1891–1969), Russia – co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya Muromets and Tsar Tank, developer of Soviet heat and aircraft engines
George Stephenson, (1781–1848), England – steam railway
Simon Stevin, (1548–1620), Netherlands – land yacht
Andreas Stihl (1896–1973), Switzerland/Germany – Electric chain saw
Reverend Dr Robert Stirling (1790–1878), Scotland – Stirling engine
Aurel Stodola, (1859–1942), Slovakia – gas turbines
Aleksandr Stoletov, (1839–1896), Russia – first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect
Levi Strauss, (1829–1902), U.S. – blue jeans
John Stringfellow, (1799–1883), England – airplane
Almon Strowger, (1839–1902), U.S. – automatic telephone exchange
Su Song, (1020–1101), China – first chain drive
Pavel Sukhoi, (1895–1975), Russia – Su-series fighter aircraft
Simon Sunatori, (1959–), Canada – inventor of MagneScribe and Magic Spicer
Sushruta, (600 BC), Vedic India – inventor of Plastic Surgery, Cataract Surgery, Rhinoplasty
Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi), (903–986), Persia/Iran – timekeeping astrolabe, navigational astrolabe, surveying astrolabe
Joseph Swan, (1828–1914), England – Incandescent light bulb
Robert Swanson, (1905–1994), Canada – Invented and developed the first multi-chime air horn for use with diesel locomotives
Andrei Sychra, (1773-76 – 1850), Lithuania/Russia, Czech descent – Russian seven-string guitar
Vladimir Syromyatnikov, (1933–2006), Russia – Androgynous Peripheral Attach System and other spacecraft docking mechanisms
Leó Szilárd, (1898–1964), Hungary/U.S. – Co-developed the atomic bomb, patented the nuclear reactor, catalyst of the Manhattan Project



Nokola Tesla




Salih Tahtawi, (fl.1659–1660), Mughal India – seamless globe and celestial globe
Igor Tamm, (1895–1971), Russia – co-developer of tokamak
Taqi al-Din, (1526–1585), Syria/Egypt/Turkey – steam turbine, six-cylinder 'Monobloc' suction pump, framed sextant
Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi, (c. 1187), Middle East – counterweight trebuchet, mangonel
Bernard Tellegen, (1900–1990), Netherlands – pentode
Edward Teller, (1908–2003), Hungary – hydrogen bomb
Nikola Tesla, (1856–1943), Croatian Serb, citizenship:Austrian Empire (pre-1891), American (post-1891) – Tesla Coil, induction motor, wireless communication
Léon Theremin, (1896–1993), Russia – theremin, interlace, burglar alarm, terpsitone, Rhythmicon (first drum machine), The Thing (listening device)
Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar, (1785–1870), France – Arithmometer
Elihu Thomson, (1853–1937), England, USA – Prolific inventor, Arc lamp and many others
Eric Tigerstedt, (1887–1925), Finland – triode vacuum tube
Kalman Tihanyi, (1897–1947), Hungary – co-inventor of cathode ray tube and iconoscope
Mikhail Tikhonravov, (1900–1974), Russia – co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Keldysh, designer of further Sputniks
Gavriil Adrianovich Tikhov, (1875–1960), Russia – feathering spectrograph
Benjamin Chew Tilghman, (1821–1897), U.S. – sandblasting
Fedor Tokarev, (1871–1968), Russia – TT-33 semiautomatic handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle
Evangelista Torricelli, (1608–1647), Italy – barometer
Alfred Traeger, (1895–1980), Australia – the pedal radio
Richard Trevithick, (1771–1833), England – high-pressure steam engine, first full-scale steam locomotive
Franc Trkman, (1903–1978), Slovenia – electrical switches, accessories for opening windows
Yuri Trutnev, (1927–), Russia – co-developer of the Tsar Bomb
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, (1857–1935), Russia – spaceflight
Mikhail Tsvet, (1872–1919), Russia – chromatography (specifically adsorption chromatography, the first chromatography method)
Ibn Tufail, (c. 1105–1185), Islamic Spain – philosophical novel
Alexei Tupolev, (1925–2001), Russia – the Tupolev Tu-144 (first supersonic passenger jet)
Andrei Tupolev, (1888–1972), Russia – turboprop powered long-range airliner (Tupolev Tu-114), turboprop strategic bomber (Tupolev Tu-95)
Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1201–1274), Persia/Iran – observatory, Tusi-couple
Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1135–1213), Persia/Iran – linear astrolabe



Lewis Urry, (1927–2004), Canada – long-lasting alkaline battery
Vladimir Utkin, (1923–2000), Russia – railcar-launched ICBM (RT-23 Molodets)



Vladimir Sergeyevich Vakhmistrov, (1897–1972), Russia – first bomber with a parasite aircraft (Zveno project)
Theophilus Van Kannel, (1841–1919), United States – revolving door (1888)
Viktor Vasnetsov, (1848–1926), Russia – budenovka military hat
Vladimir Veksler, (1907–1966), Russia – synchrophasotron, co-inventor of synchrotron
John Venn, (1834–1923), England – Venn diagram (1881)
Pierre Vernier, (1580–1637), France – vernier scale (1631)
Dmitry Vinogradov, (c.1720/25 – 1758), Russia – original Russian hard-paste porcelain (together with Mikhail Lomonosov)
Louis R. Vitullo, (1924?–2006), United States – developed the first sexual assault evidence kit
Alessandro Volta, (1745–1827), Italy – battery
Faust Vrančić, (1551–1617), Croatia – parachute
Traian Vuia, (1872–1950), Romania – designed, built, tested the first aircraft able to take off/land independently on its own wheels in 1906. Vuia reportedly flew to a height of 1 Meter and was able to stay aloft for 20 Meters.
Ivan Vyrodkov, (1488–1563-64), Russia – battery tower



Paul Walden, (1863–1957), Latvia/Russia/Germany – Walden inversion, Ethylammonium nitrate (the first room temperature ionic liquid)
Barnes Wallis, (1887–1979), England – bouncing bomb
Robert Watson-Watt, (1892–1973), Scotland – microwave radar
James Watt, (1736–1819), Scotland – improved Steam engine
Thomas Wedgwood, (1771–1805), England – first (not permanent) photograph
Jonas Wenström, (1855–1893), Sweden – three-phase electrical power
George Westinghouse, (1846–1914), U.S. – Air brake (rail)
Charles Wheatstone, (1802–1875), England – concertina, stereoscope, microphone, Playfair cipher
Eli Whitney, (1765–1825), U.S. – the cotton gin
Frank Whittle, (1907–1996), England – co-inventor of the jet engine
Otto Wichterle, (1913–1989), Czechoslovakia – invented modern contact lenses
Paul Winchell, (1922–2005), U.S. – the artificial heart
A. Baldwin Wood, (1879–1956), U.S. – high volume pump
Granville Woods, (1856–1910), U.S. – the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph
Wright brothers, Orville (1871–1948) and Wilbur (1867–1912) – U.S. – powered airplane
Arthur Wynne, (1862–1945), England – creator of crossword puzzle



Pavel Yablochkov, (1847–1894), Russia – Yablochkov candle (first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp)
Hidetsugu Yagi, (1886–1976), Japan – Yagi antenna
Alexander Yakovlev, (1906–1989), Russia – Yak-series aircraft, including Yakovlev Yak-40 (the first regional jet)
Khalid ibn Yazid, (635-704), Syria/Egypt – potassium nitrate
Yi Xing, (683-727), China – astronomical clock
Gazi Yasargil, (1925- ), Turkey – Microneurosurgery
Arthur M. Young, (1905–1995), U.S. – the Bell Helicopter
Vladimir Yourkevitch, (1885–1964), Russia/France/U.S. – modern ship hull design
Sergei Yudin, (1891–1954), Russia – cadaveric blood transfusion and other medical operations
Muhammad Yunus, (b. 1940), Bangladesh – microcredit, microfinance
Abu Yaqub Yusuf, (c. 1274), Morocco/Spain – siege cannon
Linus Yale, Jr., (1821–1868), U.S. – cylinder lock
Linus Yale, Sr., (1797–1858), U.S. – pin tumbler lock



Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), (936–1013), Islamic Spain – catgut surgical suture, various surgical instruments and dental devices
Alexander Zalmanov, (1875–1965), Russia – turpentine bath
Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof, (1859–1917) Russia/Poland – Esperanto
Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel), (1028–1087), Islamic Spain – almanac, equatorium, universal astrolabe
Yevgeny Zavoisky, (1907–1976), Russia – EPR spectroscopy, co-developer of NMR spectroscopy
Nikolay Zelinsky, (1861–1953), Russia – the first effective filtering coal gas mask in the world
Zhang Heng, (78–139), China – invented the first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere
Zheng He, (1371–1433), China – treasure ship
Nikolai Zhukovsky, (1847–1921), Russia – an early wind tunnel, co-developer of the Tsar Tank
Konrad Zuse, (22 June 1910–18 December 1995), Germany – invented the first Computer (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4)
Vasily Zvyozdochkin, (1876–1956), Russia – matryoshka doll (together with Sergey Malyutin)
Vladimir Zworykin, (1889–1982), Russia/U.S. – Iconoscope, kinescope.





SeaVax prototype ocean cleaning vessel 2015


SEAVAX - is a battery electric ASV (Autonomous Solar Vessel), a trimaran robot that runs on solar power = energy from nature. A fleet of such vessels could be the basis of an international ocean plastic cleanup campaign in the hope of protecting marine mammals and improving the health of wild fish stocks.












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