decades after receiving her Nobel Peace Prize, Aung
San Suu Kyi, the Burmese democracy campaigner, delivered her
acceptance speech for her peace prize in Oslo's vast City Hall. This
is a stunning first time event.
San Suu Kyi was awarded the prize in 1991, but was then under
house arrest by Burma's
military junta. So it was left to her two sons, Alexander and Kim, to
travel to Norway
to receive the prize that year on their mother's behalf. Able to travel freely after 21
years, Aung San Suu Kyi stood in front of a packed hall, in which
Norwegian dignitaries rubbed shoulders with Buddhist monks in saffron
robes and Burmese guests in traditional costumes, to deliver her
long-delayed acceptance speech in a moment of high emotion.
Aung San Suu Kyi addresses crowds at the NLD headquarters shortly after her release.
Commended in the original citation for her
"non-violent struggle" as "one of the most
extraordinary examples of civil courage in Asia in recent
decades", the 66-year-old activist, elected to the country's
national assembly during its fragile political transition, recalled
with typical self-effacement the moment at which she heard she had
been awarded the peace prize. She is quoted as saying:-
"I heard the news on the radio one
evening. I've tried very hard to remember what my immediate reaction
to the announcement of the award had been. I think it was something
like: 'Oh … so they've decided to give it to me'."
Aung San Suu Kyi arrived in Norway from
Switzerland, her first stop on a two-week tour of
The journey is her first in Europe since 1988, when she left her
husband and two young sons in England to visit her ill mother in Burma
and became the focal point for the nascent democracy movement.
She made a wide-ranging, deeply personal
lecture, which touched on her feelings of isolation under house
arrest, the Buddhist concept of suffering, human rights and her hopes
and fears for her country's future, and the importance of the peace
"It did not seem quite real because in a
sense I did not feel myself to be quite real at that time," she
said. "Often during my days of house arrest it felt as though I
were no longer a part of the real world.
"There was the house which was my world,
there was the world of others who also were not free but were together
in prison as a community, and there was the world of the free; each
was a different planet pursuing its own separate course in an
peace prize did was to draw me once again into the world of other
human beings outside the isolated area in which I lived, to restore a
sense of reality to me. This did not happen instantly, of course, but
as the days and months went by, and news of reactions to the award
came over the airwaves, I began to understand the significance of the
Nobel prize. It had made me real once again:-
"What was more important, the prize had
drawn the attention of the world to the struggle for democracy and
human rights in Burma. We were not going to be forgotten. When the
Nobel committee awarded the peace prize to me, they were recognising
that the oppressed and the isolated in Burma were also a part of the
world, they were recognising the oneness of humanity … The Nobel
peace prize opened up a door in my heart."
Talking about the motivation in a period
during which she was separated from her family and her British
husband, the academic Michael Aris, died, she said:-
"If I am
asked why I am fighting for democracy in Burma, it is because I
believe that democratic institutions and practices are necessary for
the guarantee of human rights. When I joined the democracy movement in
Burma, it never occurred to me that I might ever be the recipient of
any prize or honour. The prize we were working for was a free, secure
and just society where our people might be able to realise their full
Aung San Suu Kyi appeared impossibly small,
entering the City Hall wearing a purple jacket and flowing lilac scarf
to the sound of a trumpet fanfare.
Thorbjørn Jagland, chairman of the Nobel
committee, who introduced her, said:-
"Today's event is one of the
most remarkable in the entire history of the Nobel prizes … We hope
that Liu Xiaobo [Chinese political activist] will not have to wait
as long as you have before he can come to Oslo."
Jagland recalled how, when the
celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2001 with more than 30 laureates
in attendance: "we left one chair empty".
Aung San Suu Kyi MP AC (Burmese: ; MLCTS: aung hcan: cu.
krany; born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese opposition politician and General Secretary of the National League for Democracy (NLD) in Burma. In the 1990 general election, the NLD won 59% of the national votes and 81% (392 of 485) of the seats in
Parliament. She had, however, already been detained under house arrest before the elections. She remained under house arrest in Burma for almost 15 of the 21 years from 20 July 1989 until her most recent release on 13 November
2010, becoming one of the world's most prominent (now former) political
Suu Kyi received the Rafto Prize and the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. In 1992 she was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding by the government of India and the International Simón Bolívar Prize from the government of Venezuela. In 2007, the Government of
Canada made her an honorary citizen of that
country; at the time, she was one of only four people ever to receive the
honor. In 2011, she was awarded the Wallenberg Medal.
On 1 April 2012, her opposition party, the National League for Democracy, announced that she was elected to the Pyithu Hluttaw, the lower house of the Burmese parliament, representing the constituency of
Kawhmu; her party also won 43 of the 45 vacant seats in the lower house. The election results were confirmed by the official electoral commission the following
Suu Kyi is the third child and only daughter of Aung San, considered to be the father of modern-day Burma.
Aung San Suu Kyi derives her name from three relatives: "Aung San" from her father, "Suu" from her paternal grandmother and "Kyi" from her mother Khin
Kyi. She is frequently called Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Daw is not part of her name, but is an honorific, similar to madame, for older, revered women, literally meaning
"aunt." She is also often referred to as Daw Suu by the Burmese (or Amay Suu, lit. "Mother Suu," by some
followers), or "Aunty Suu", and as Dr. Suu Kyi, Ms. Suu Kyi, or Mrs. Suu Kyi by the foreign media. However, like other Burmese, she has no surname (see Burmese names). The pronunciation of her name is approximated as "Awn Sahn Sue Chee," although the "ch" in "Chee" is
A portrait of Khin Kyi and her family in 1948. Aung San Suu Kyi is seated on the floor.Aung San Suu Kyi was born in Rangoon (now named
Yangon). Her father, Aung San, founded the modern Burmese army and negotiated Burma's independence from the British Empire in 1947; he was assassinated by his rivals in the same year. She grew up with her mother, Khin Kyi, and two brothers, Aung San Lin and Aung San Oo, in Rangoon. Aung San Lin died at age eight, when he drowned in an ornamental lake on the grounds of the
house. Her elder brother emigrated to San Diego, California, becoming a United States
citizen. After Aung San Lin's death, the family moved to a house by Inya Lake where Suu Kyi met people of very different backgrounds, political views and
religions. She was educated in Methodist English High School (now Basic Education High School No. 1 Dagon) for much of her childhood in Burma, where she was noted as having a talent for learning
languages. She is a Theravada Buddhist.
Aung San Suu Kyi at the age of six.Suu Kyi's mother, Khin Kyi, gained prominence as a political figure in the newly formed Burmese government. She was appointed Burmese ambassador to India and Nepal in 1960, and Aung San Suu Kyi followed her there, she studied in the Convent of Jesus and Mary School, New Delhi and graduated from Lady Shri Ram College in New Delhi with a degree in politics in
1964. Suu Kyi continued her education at St Hugh's College, Oxford, obtaining a B.A. degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics in 1969. According to a fellow classmate, Suu Kyi fell in love with Tariq Hyder, a Pakistani student, during her second year in
Oxford. Their relationship was not well received by her circle of friends and it soon
ended. After graduating, she lived in New York City with a family friend Ma Than E, who was once a popular Burmese pop
singer. She worked at the UN for three years, primarily on budget matters, writing daily to her future husband, Dr. Michael
Aris. In late 1971, Aung San Suu Kyi married Aris, a scholar of Tibetan culture, living abroad in
Bhutan. The following year she gave birth to their first son, Alexander Aris, in London; their second son, Kim, was born in 1977. Subsequently, she earned a PhD at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London in 1985. She was elected as an Honorary Fellow in
1990. For two years she was a Fellow at the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Shimla, India. She also worked for the government of the Union of Burma.
In 1988 Suu Kyi returned to Burma, at first to tend for her ailing mother but later to lead the pro-democracy movement. Aris' visit in Christmas 1995 turned out to be the last time that he and Suu Kyi met, as Suu Kyi remained in Burma and the Burmese dictatorship denied him any further entry
visas. Aris was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1997 which was later found to be terminal. Despite appeals from prominent figures and organizations, including the United States, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and Pope John Paul II, the Burmese government would not grant Aris a visa, saying that they did not have the facilities to care for him, and instead urged Aung San Suu Kyi to leave the country to visit him. She was at that time temporarily free from house arrest but was unwilling to depart, fearing that she would be refused re-entry if she left, as she did not trust the military junta's assurance that she could
Aris died on his 53rd birthday on 27 March 1999. Since 1989, when his wife was first placed under house arrest, he had seen her only five times, the last of which was for Christmas in 1995. She was also separated from her children, who live in the United Kingdom, but starting in 2011, they have visited her in
On 2 May 2008, after Cyclone Nargis hit Burma, Suu Kyi lost the roof of her house and lived in virtual darkness after losing electricity in her dilapidated lakeside residence. She used candles at night as she was not provided any generator
set. Plans to renovate and repair the house were announced in August
2009. Suu Kyi was released from house arrest on 13 November 2010.
Coincident with Aung San Suu Kyi's return to Burma in 1988, the long-time military leader of Burma and head of the ruling party, General Ne Win, stepped down. Mass demonstrations for democracy followed that event on 8 August 1988 (8–8–88, a day seen as auspicious), which were violently suppressed in what came to be known as the 8888 Uprising. On 26 August 1988, she addressed half a million people at a mass rally in front of the Shwedagon Pagoda in the capital, calling for a democratic
government. However in September, a new military junta took power.
Influenced by both Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence and more specifically by Buddhist
concepts, Aung San Suu Kyi entered politics to work for democratization, helped found the National League for Democracy on 27 September
1988, but was put under house arrest on 20 July 1989. Offered freedom if she left the country, she refused.
One of her most famous speeches was "Freedom From Fear", which began: "It is not power that corrupts, but fear. Fear of losing power corrupts those who wield it and fear of the scourge of power corrupts those who are subject to it."
She also believes fear spurs many world leaders to lose sight of their purpose. "Government leaders are amazing", she once said. "So often it seems they are the last to know what the people
Suu Kyi meets with Edgardo Boeninger of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs in 1995.1990 general electionIn 1990, the military junta called a general election, in which the National League for Democracy (NLD) received 59% of the votes, guaranteeing NLD 80% of the parliament seats. Some claim that Aung San Suu Kyi would have assumed the office of Prime
Minister; in fact, however, as she wasn't permitted, she did not stand as a candidate in the elections (although being a MP isn't a strict prerequisite for becoming PM in most parliamentary systems). Instead, the results were nullified and the military refused to hand over power, resulting in an international outcry. Aung San Suu Kyi was placed under house arrest at her home on University Avenue in Rangoon, during which time she was awarded the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990, and the Nobel Peace Prize the year after. Her sons Alexander and Kim accepted the Nobel Peace Prize on her behalf. Aung San Suu Kyi used the Nobel Peace Prize's 1.3 million USD prize money to establish a health and education trust for the Burmese
people. Around this time, Suu Kyi chose non-violence as an expedient political tactic, stating in 2007, "I do not hold to non-violence for moral reasons, but for political and practical
reasons," however, nonviolent action as well as civil resistance in lieu of armed conflict are also political tactics in keeping with the overall philosophy of her Theravada Buddhist religion.
On 9 November 1996, the motorcade that she was traveling in with other National League for Democracy leaders Tin Oo and U Kyi Maung, was attacked in Yangon. About 200 men swooped down on the motorcade, wielding metal chains, metal batons, stones and other weapons. The car that Aung San Suu Kyi was in had its rear window smashed, and the car with Tin Oo and U Kyi Maung had its rear window and two backdoor windows shattered. It is believed the offenders were members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) who were allegedly paid 500 kyats (@ USD $0.5) each to participate. The NLD lodged an official complaint with the police, and according to reports the government launched an investigation, but no action was taken. (Amnesty International
House arrestAung San Suu Kyi has been placed under house arrest for 15 of the past 21 years, on different occasions, since she began her political career, during which time she was prevented from meeting her party supporters and international visitors. In an interview, Suu Kyi said that while under house arrest she spent her time reading philosophy, politics and biographies that her husband had sent
her. She also passed the time playing the piano, and was occasionally allowed visits from foreign diplomats as well as from her personal
The media were also prevented from visiting Suu Kyi, as occurred in 1998 when journalist Maurizio Giuliano, after photographing her, was stopped by customs officials who then confiscated all his films, tapes and some
notes. In contrast, Suu Kyi did have visits from government representatives, such as during her autumn 1994 house arrest when she met the leader of Burma, General Than Shwe and General Khin Nyunt on 20 September in the first meeting since she had been placed in
detention. On several occasions during Suu Kyi's house arrest, she had periods of poor health and as a result was
The Burmese government detained and kept Suu Kyi imprisoned because it viewed her as someone "likely to undermine the community peace and stability" of the country, and used both Article 10(a) and 10(b) of the 1975 State Protection Act (granting the government the power to imprison people for up to five years without a
trial), and Section 22 of the "Law to Safeguard the State Against the Dangers of Those Desiring to Cause Subversive Acts" as legal tools against
her. She continuously appealed her detention, and many nations and figures continued to call for her release and that of 2,100 other political prisoners in the
country. On 12 November 2010, days after the junta-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) won elections conducted after a gap of almost 20 years, the junta finally agreed to sign orders allowing Suu Kyi's
release, and Suu Kyi's house arrest term came to an end on 13 November 2010.
UN has attempted to facilitate dialogue between the junta and Suu
Kyi. On 6 May 2002, following secret confidence-building negotiations led by the UN, the government released her; a government spokesman said that she was free to move "because we are confident that we can trust each other". Aung San Suu Kyi proclaimed "a new dawn for the country". However on 30 May 2003 in an incident similar to the 1996 attack on her, a government-sponsored mob attacked her caravan in the northern village of Depayin, murdering and wounding many of her
supporters. Aung San Suu Kyi fled the scene with the help of her driver, Ko Kyaw Soe Lin, but was arrested upon reaching Ye-U. The government imprisoned her at Insein Prison in Rangoon. After she underwent a hysterectomy in September
2003, the government again placed her under house arrest in Rangoon.
The results from the UN facilitation have been mixed; Razali Ismail, UN special envoy to Burma, met with Aung San Suu Kyi. Ismail resigned from his post the following year, partly because he was denied re-entry to Burma on several
occasions. Several years later in 2006, Ibrahim Gambari, UN Undersecretary-General (USG) of Department of Political Affairs, met with Aung San Suu Kyi, the first visit by a foreign official since
2004. He also met with Suu Kyi later the same year. On 2 October 2007 Gambari returned to talk to her again after seeing Than Shwe and other members of the senior leadership in
Naypyidaw. State television broadcast Suu Kyi with Gambari, stating that they had met twice. This was Suu Kyi's first appearance in state media in the four years since her current detention
The United Nations Working Group for Arbitrary Detention published an Opinion that Aung San Suu Kyi's deprivation of liberty was arbitrary and in contravention of Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, and requested that the authorities in Burma set her free, but the authorities ignored the request at that
time. The U.N. report said that according to the Burmese Government’s reply, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has not been arrested, but has only been taken into protective custody, for her own safety", and while "it could have instituted legal action against her under the country’s domestic legislation ... it has preferred to adopt a magnanimous attitude, and is providing her with protection in her own
Such claims were rejected by Brig-General Khin Yi, Chief of Myanmar Police Force (MPF). On 18 January 2007, the state-run paper New Light of Myanmar accused Suu Kyi of tax evasion for spending her Nobel Prize money outside of the country. The accusation followed the defeat of a US-sponsored United Nations Security Council resolution condemning Burma as a threat to international security; the resolution was defeated because of strong opposition from China, which has strong ties with the military junta (China later voted against the resolution, along with
Russia and South
In November 2007, it was reported that Suu Kyi would meet her political allies National League for Democracy along with a government minister. The ruling junta made the official announcement on state TV and radio just hours after UN special envoy Ibrahim Gambari ended his second visit to Burma. The NLD confirmed that it had received the invitation to hold talks with Suu
Kyi. However, the process delivered few concrete results.
On 3 July 2009, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon went to Burma to pressure the junta into releasing Suu Kyi and to institute democratic reform. However, on departing from Burma, Ban Ki-moon said he was "disappointed" with the visit after junta leader Than Shwe refused permission for him to visit Suu Kyi, citing her ongoing trial. Ban said he was "deeply disappointed that they have missed a very important
Periods under detention
20 July 1989: Placed under house arrest in Rangoon under martial law that allows for detention without charge or trial for three
10 July 1995: Released from house arrest.
23 September 2000: Placed under house arrest.
6 May 2002: Released after 19 months.
30 May 2003: Arrested following the Depayin massacre, she was held in secret detention for more than three months before being returned to house
25 May 2007: House arrest extended by one year despite a direct appeal from U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan to General Than
24 October 2007: Reached 12 years under house arrest, solidarity protests held at 12 cities around the
27 May 2008: House arrest extended for another year, which is illegal under both international law and Burma's own
11 August 2009: House arrest extended for 18 more months because of "violation" arising from the May 2009 trespass incident.
13 November 2010: Released from house arrest.
2007 anti-government protestsMain article: 2007 Burmese anti-government protests
Protests led by Buddhist monks began on 19 August 2007 following steep fuel price increases, and continued each day, despite the threat of a crackdown by the
On 22 September 2007, although still under house arrest, Suu Kyi made a brief public appearance at the gate of her residence in Yangon to accept the blessings of Buddhist monks who were marching in support of human
rights. It was reported that she had been moved the following day to Insein Prison (where she had been detained in
2003), but meetings with UN envoy Ibrahim Gambari near her Rangoon home on 30 September and 2 October established that she remained under house
2009 trespass incident
U.S. Senator Jim Webb visiting Suu Kyi in 2009. Webb negotiated the release of John Yettaw, the man who trespassed in Suu Kyi's home, resulting in her arrest and conviction with three years' hard labour.On 3 May 2009, an American man, identified as John Yettaw, swam across Inya Lake to her house uninvited and was arrested when he made his return trip three days
later. He had attempted to make a similar trip two years earlier, but for unknown reasons was turned
away. He later claimed at trial that he was motivated by a divine vision requiring him to notify her of an impending terrorist assassination
attempt. On 13 May, Suu Kyi was arrested for violating the terms of her house arrest because the swimmer, who pleaded exhaustion, was allowed to stay in her house for two days before he attempted the swim back. Suu Kyi was later taken to Insein Prison, where she could have faced up to five years confinement for the
intrusion. The trial of Suu Kyi and her two maids began on 18 May and a small number of protesters gathered
Diplomats and journalists were barred from attending the trial; however, on one occasion, several diplomats from Russia, Thailand and Singapore and journalists were allowed to meet Suu
Kyi. The prosecution had originally planned to call 22 witnesses. It also accused John Yettaw of embarrassing the
country. During the ongoing defence case, Suu Kyi said she was innocent. The defence was allowed to call only one witness (out of four), while the prosecution was permitted to call 14 witnesses. The court rejected two character witnesses, NLD members Tin Oo and Win Tin, and permitted the defense to call only a legal
expert. According to one unconfirmed report, the junta was planning to, once again, place her in detention, this time in a military base outside the
city. In a separate trial, Yettaw said he swam to Suu Kyi's house to warn her that her life was "in
danger". The national police chief later confirmed that Yettaw was the "main culprit" in the case filed against Suu
Kyi. According to aides, Suu Kyi spent her 64th birthday in jail sharing biryani rice and chocolate cake with her
Her arrest and subsequent trial received worldwide condemnation by the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations Security
Council, Western governments, South Africa, Japan and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, of which Burma is a
member. The Burmese government strongly condemned the statement, as it created an "unsound
tradition" and criticised Thailand for meddling in its internal
affairs. The Burmese Foreign Minister Nyan Win was quoted in the state-run newspaper New Light of Myanmar as saying that the incident "was trumped up to intensify international pressure on Burma by internal and external anti-government elements who do not wish to see the positive changes in those countries' policies toward
Burma". Ban responded to an international campaign by flying to Burma to negotiate, but Than Shwe rejected all of his
On 11 August 2009 the trial concluded with Suu Kyi being sentenced to imprisonment for three years with hard labour. This sentence was commuted by the military rulers to further house arrest of 18
months. On 14 August, U.S. Senator Jim Webb visited Burma, visiting with junta leader Gen. Than Shwe and later with Suu Kyi. During the visit, Webb negotiated Yettaw's release and deportation from
Burma. Following the verdict of the trial, lawyers of Suu Kyi said they would appeal against the 18-month
sentence. On 18 August, United States President Barack Obama asked the country's military leadership to set free all political prisoners, including Aung San Suu
Kyi. In her appeal, Aung San Suu Kyi had argued that the conviction was unwarranted. However, her appeal against the August sentence was rejected by a Burmese court on 2 October 2009. Although the court accepted the argument that the 1974 constitution, under which she had been charged, was null and void, it also said the provisions of the 1975 security law, under which she has been kept under house arrest, remained in force. The verdict effectively meant that she would be unable to participate in the elections scheduled to take place in 2010 – the first in Burma in two decades. Her lawyer stated that her legal team would pursue a new appeal within 60
2009: International pressure for release, and Burmese general election 2010It was announced prior to the Burmese general election that Aung San Suu Kyi may be released "so she can organize her
party," However, Suu Kyi was not allowed to run. On 1 October 2010 the government announced that she would be released on 13 November
Burma's relaxing stance, such as releasing political prisoners, was influenced in the wake of successful recent diplomatic visits by the US and other democratic governments, urging or encouraging the Burmese towards democratic reform. U.S. President Barack Obama personally advocated for the release of all political prisoners, especially Aung San Suu Kyi, during the US-ASEAN Summit of
Democratic governments hoped that successful general elections would be an optimistic indicator of the Burmese government's sincerity towards eventual
democracy. The Hatoyama government which spent 2.82 billion yen in 2008, has promised more Japanese foreign aid to encourage Burma to release Aung San Suu Kyi in time for the elections; and to continue moving towards democracy and the rule of
In a personal letter to Suu Kyi, UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown cautioned the Burmese government of the potential consequences of rigging elections as "condemning Burma to more years of diplomatic isolation and economic
The Burmese government has been granting Suu Kyi varying degrees of freedom throughout late 2009, in response to international pressure. She has met with many heads of state, and opened a dialog with the Minister of Labor Aung Kyi (not to be confused with Aung San Suu Kyi).
Suu Kyi was allowed to meet with senior members of her NLD party at the State
House, however these meeting took place under close supervision.
Aung San Suu Kyi meets with US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton in Yangon (1 December 2011)On the evening of 13 November 2010, Suu Kyi was released from house
arrest. This was the date her detention had been set to expire according to a court ruling in August
2009 and came six days after a widely criticized general election. She appeared in front of a crowd of her supporters, who rushed to her house in Rangoon when nearby barricades were removed by the security forces. The Nobel Peace Prize laureate had been detained for 15 of the past 21
years. The government newspaper New Light of Myanmar reported the release
positively, saying she had been granted a pardon after serving her sentence "in good
conduct". The New York Times suggested that the military government may have released Suu Kyi because it felt it was in a confident position to control her supporters after the
election. The role that Suu Kyi will play in the future of democracy in Burma remains a subject of much debate.
Her son Kim Aris was granted a visa in November 2010 to see his mother shortly after her release, for the first time in 10
years. He visited again in 5 July 2011, to accompany her on a trip to Bagan, her first trip outside Yangon since
2003. Her son visited again in 8 August 2011, to accompany her on a trip to Pegu, her second
Discussions were held between Suu Kyi and the Burmese government during 2011, which led to a number of official gestures to meet her demands. In October, around a tenth of Burma's political prisoners were freed in an amnesty and trade unions were legalised.
In November 2011, following a meeting of its leaders, the NLD announced its intention to re-register as a political party in order contend 48 by-elections necessitated by the promotion of parliamentarians to ministerial
rank. Following the decision, Suu Kyi held a telephone conference with U.S. President Barack Obama, in which it was agreed that Secretary of State Hillary Clinton would make a visit to Burma, a move received with caution by Burma's ally
China. On 1 December 2011, Suu Kyi met with Hillary Clinton at the residence of the top-ranking US diplomat in Yangon.
On 21 December 2011, Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra met Suu Kyi in Yangoon, becoming Suu Kyi's "first-ever meeting with the leader of a foreign
On 5 January 2012, British Foreign Minister William Hague met Aung San Suu Kyi and his Burmese counterpart. This represented a significant visit for Suu Kyi and Burma. Suu Kyi studied in the UK and maintains many ties there, whilst Britain is Burma's largest bilateral donor. Aung San Suu Kyi is on her visit to Europe and is due to visit the Swiss parliament and collect her 1991 Nobel Prize in
In December 2011, there was speculation that Suu Kyi would run in the 2012 national by-elections to fill vacant
seats. On 18 January 2012, Suu Kyi formally registered to contest a Pyithu Hluttaw (lower house) seat in the Kawhmu Township constituency in special parliamentary elections to be held on 1 April
2012. The seat was previously held by Soe Tint, who vacated it after being appointed Construction Deputy Minister, in the 2010
election. She ran against Union Solidarity and Development Party candidate Soe Min, a retired army physician and native of Twante
On 3 March 2012, at a large campaign rally in Mandalay, Suu Kyi unexpectedly left after 15 minutes, because of exhaustion and
In an official campaign speech broadcast on Burmese state television's MRTV on 14 March 2012, Suu Kyi publicly campaigned for reform of the 2008 Constitution, removal of restrictive laws, more adequate protections for people's democratic rights, and establishment of an independent
judiciary. The speech was leaked online a day before it was broadcast. A paragraph in the speech, focusing on the Tatmadaw's repression by means of law, was censored by
Suu Kyi has also called for international media to monitor the upcoming by-elections, while publicly pointing out irregularities in official voter lists, which include deceased individuals and exclude other eligible voters in the contested
constituencies. On 21 March 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was quoted as saying "Fraud and rule violations are continuing and we can even say they are
When asked whether she would assume a ministerial post if given the opportunity, she said the
"I can tell you one thing – that under the present constitution, if you become a member of the government you have to vacate your seat in the national assembly. And I am not working so hard to get into parliament simply to vacate my seat."
On 26 March 2012, Suu Kyi suspended her nationwide campaign tour early, after a campaign rally in Myeik (Mergui), a coastal town in the south, citing health problems due to exhaustion and hot
On 1 April 2012, the NLD announced that Suu Kyi had won the vote for a seat in
Parliament. A news broadcast on state-run MRTV, reading the announcements of the Union Election Commission, confirmed her victory, as well as her party's victory in 43 of the 45 contested seats, officially making Suu Kyi the Leader of the Opposition in the lower
Although she and other MP-elects were expected to take office on 23 April when the Hluttaws resume session, National League for Democracy MP-elects, including Suu Kyi, said they might not take their oaths because of its wording; in its present form, parliamentarians must vow to "safeguard" the
constitution. In an address on Radio Free Asia, she said "We don't mean we will not attend the parliament, we mean we will attend only after taking the oath... Changing that wording in the oath is also in conformity with the Constitution. I don't expect there will be any difficulty in doing
On 2 May 2012, National League for Democracy MP-elects, including Aung San Suu Kyi, took their oaths and took office, though the wording of the oath was not changed.
According to the Los Angeles Times, "Suu Kyi and her colleagues decided they could do more by joining as lawmakers than maintaining their boycott on principle."
The 2009 celebration of Aung San Suu Kyi's birthday in Dublin, IrelandAung San Suu Kyi has received vocal support from Western nations in
Europe, Australia and North and South America, as well as India, Israel,
Japan the Philippines and South Korea. In December 2007, the US House of Representatives voted unanimously 400–0 to award Aung San Suu Kyi the Congressional Gold Medal; the Senate concurred on 25 April
On 6 May 2008, President George Bush signed legislation awarding Suu Kyi the Congressional Gold
Medal. She is the first recipient in American history to receive the prize while imprisoned. More recently, there has been growing criticism of her detention by Burma's neighbours in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, particularly from
Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines and Singapore. At one point Malaysia warned Burma that it faced expulsion from ASEAN as a result of the detention of Suu
Kyi. Other nations including South Africa, Bangladesh and the Maldives also called for her release. The United Nations has urged the country to move towards inclusive national reconciliation, the restoration of democracy, and full respect for human
In December 2008, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution condemning the human rights situation in Burma and calling for Suu Kyi's release—80 countries voting for the resolution, 25 against and 45
abstentions. Other nations, such as China and Russia, are less critical of the regime and prefer to cooperate only on economic
matters. Indonesia has urged China to push Burma for reforms. However, Samak Sundaravej, former Prime Minister of Thailand, criticised the amount of support for Suu Kyi, saying that "Europe uses Aung San Suu Kyi as a tool. If it's not related to Aung San Suu Kyi, you can have deeper discussions with
Aung San Suu Kyi greeting supporters from Bago State in 2011.Vietnam, however, did not support calls by other ASEAN member states for Myanmar to free Aung San Suu Kyi, state media reported Friday, 14 August
2009. The state-run Việt Nam News said Vietnam had no criticism of Myanmar's decision 11 August 2009 to place Suu Kyi under house arrest for the next 18 months, effectively barring her from elections scheduled for 2010. "It is our view that the Aung San Suu Kyi trial is an internal affair of Myanmar", Vietnamese government spokesman Le Dung stated on the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In contrast with other ASEAN member states, Dung said Vietnam has always supported Myanmar and hopes it will continue to implement the "roadmap to democracy" outlined by its
Nobel Peace PrizeAung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. The decision of the Nobel Committee
The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1991 to Aung San Suu Kyi of Myanmar (Burma) for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights.
...Suu Kyi's struggle is one of the most extraordinary examples of civil courage in Asia in recent decades. She has become an important symbol in the struggle against oppression...
...In awarding the Nobel Peace Prize for 1991 to Aung San Suu Kyi, the Norwegian Nobel Committee wishes to honour this woman for her unflagging efforts and to show its support for the many people throughout the world who are striving to attain democracy, human rights and ethnic conciliation by peaceful means.
—Oslo, 14 October 1991
Nobel Peace Prize winners (Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the Dalai Lama, Shirin Ebadi, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Mairead Corrigan, Rigoberta Menchú, Prof. Elie Wiesel, U.S. President Barack Obama, Betty Williams, Jody Williams and former U.S. President Jimmy Carter) called for the rulers of Burma to release Suu Kyi in order to "create the necessary conditions for a genuine dialogue with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and all concerned parties and ethnic groups in order to achieve an inclusive national reconciliation with the direct support of the United
Nations." Some of the money she received as part of the award helps fund London-based charity Prospect Burma, which provides higher education grants to Burmese
On 16 June 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was finally able to deliver her Nobel acceptance speech at Oslo's City Hall, two decades after being awarded the peace
Freedom Now, a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit organization, was retained in 2006 by a member of her family to help secure Aung San Suu Kyi's release from house arrest. The organization secured several opinions from the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention that her detention was in violation of international law; engaged in political advocacy such as spearheading a letter from 112 former Presidents and Prime Ministers to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urging him to go to Burma to seek her release, which he did six weeks later; and published numerous opeds and spoke widely to the media about her ongoing detention. Its representation of her ended when she was released from house arrest on 13 November
Aung San Suu Kyi has been an honorary board member of International IDEA and ARTICLE 19 since her detention, and has received support from these organisations.
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Université catholique de Louvain, both located in Belgium, granted her the title of Doctor Honoris
In 2003, the Freedom Forum recognized Suu Kyi's efforts to promote democracy peacefully with the Al Neuharth Free Spirit of the Year Award, in which she was presented over satellite because she was under house arrest. She was awarded one million
In June of each year, the U.S. Campaign for Burma organizes hundreds of "Arrest Yourself" house parties around the world in support of Aung San Suu Kyi. At these parties, the organizers keep themselves under house arrest for 24 hours, invite their friends, and learn more about Burma and Aung San Suu
The Freedom Campaign, a joint effort between the Human Rights Action Center and US Campaign for Burma, looks to raise worldwide attention to the struggles of Aung San Suu Kyi and the people of Burma.
The Burma Campaign UK is a UK based NGO (Non Governmental Organisation) that aims to raise awareness of Burma's struggles and follow the guidelines established by the NLD and Aung San Suu
St. Hugh's College, Oxford, where she studied, had a Burmese theme for their annual ball in support of her in
Aung San Suu Kyi is the official patron of The Rafto Human Rights House in Bergen,
Norway. She received the Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize in 1990.
She was made an honorary free person of the City of Dublin, Ireland in November 1999, although a space had been left on the roll of signatures to symbolize her continued detention.
In November 2005 the human rights group Equality Now proposed Aung Sun Suu Kyi as a potential candidate, among other qualifying women, for the position of U.N. Secretary
General. In the proposed list of qualified women Suu Kyi is recognised by Equality Now as the Prime Minister-Elect of
The UN' special envoy to Myanmar, Ibrahim Gambari, met Aung San Suu Kyi on 10 March 2008 before wrapping up his trip to the military-ruled
Aung San Suu Kyi is an honorary member of The Elders, a group of eminent global leaders brought together by Nelson
Mandela. Her ongoing detention means that she is unable to take an active role in the group, so The Elders place an empty chair for her at their
meetings. The Elders have consistently called for the release of all political prisoners in
In 2008, Burma’s devoted human rights leader and Nobel Peace
Prize, was welcomed as Club of Madrid Honorary Member.
In 2011, Aung San Suu Kyi was named the Guest Director of the 45th Brighton
In June 2011, the BBC announced that Aung San Suu Kyi was to deliver the 2011 Reith Lectures. The BBC covertly recorded two lectures with Aung San Suu Kyi in Burma, which were then smuggled out of the country and brought back to
London. The lectures were broadcast on BBC Radio 4 and the BBC World Service on 28 June 2011 and 5 July 2011.
In November 2011, Suu Kyi received Francois Zimeray, France's Ambassador for Human Rights.
March 8, 2012, Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird presented Aung San Suu Kyi a certificate of honorary Canadian citizenship and an informal invitation to visit Canada.
In April 2012, British Prime Minister
David Cameron became the first leader of a major world power to visit Aung San Su Kyi and the first of a British prime minister since the 1950s. In his visit, Cameron invited San Su Kyi to Britain where she would be able to visit her 'beloved' Oxford, an invitation which she later accepted; no specifec date has been confirmed but the month is thought to be June 2012.
In May 2012, Suu Kyi received the inaugural Václav Havel Prize for Creative Dissent of the Human Rights
29 May 2012 PM Manmohan Singh of India visited Aung San Suu Kyi. In his visit, PM invited San Suu Kyi to India as well.
June 16th 2012
democracy speech - Youtube
prize 1991 - Youtube
San Suu Kyi release - Youtube
A family portrait, with Aung San Suu Kyi (in white) as a toddler, taken in 1947, shortly before her father's
May 2009 demonstration for Aung San Suu Kyi in Rome, Italy
Aung San Suu Kyi (Center) gives speech to the supporters during 2012 by-election campaign at her constituency Kawhmu township, Myanmar on 22 March
cannot be kept by force; it can only be achieved by understanding.”
absence of war, based on force and military threat is not peace. It
is a constant battle of wits to outsmart the enemy, which presumes the
we agree with Albert in the main, 'understanding' will not suffice when it comes to
global issues such as water and food shortages, which is inevitable as
the population continues to rise and our new neighbours naturally want
to enjoy life as we do. And why shouldn't they, and why would we not
want to secure that right for them? They are after all our relations.
is where Albert's 'understanding' bit kicks in. We know what everyone
around the world aspires to and we know that the Earth
cannot supply food and energy to meet the needs of an ever expanding
population. Understanding that, we must take steps to ensure that supply
never outstrips demand. If the world population ever reaches a point
where we cannot feed, water and heat ourselves - then we're in real trouble.
But birth control is a draconian solution which is inhumane. Thus,
education is the key and perhaps contraception if your religion allows.
economies are based on oil at the moment. That too is a recipe for disaster.
Once the oil
starts to run out, not only will that lead to increased international
tensions (put simply war), but it will also mean economic chaos on a
grand scale. Mortgages will go unpaid as workers cannot get to work.
House repossessions will follow and eventually bank
repossessions will mean a glut of houses that they cannot sell, because nobody will be able to
get to work to earn the sums needed to furnish the average world
mortgage. When that happens the markets will collapse and this time the
governments who bailed out the last lot in the US and Europe, will have
to think again - probably amid riots and other civil disobedience.
we must act now on all fronts. Chance favours the prepared mind. We'd go
further. Human survival depends on the ordinary man understanding the
implications of continuing as we are, against voting for politicians who
also understand what is likely to happen if we continue to milk mother
earth for monetary gain.
We are all entitled to enjoy our time on earth,
but we are also the keepers of the keys because of our unique ability to
think intelligently. All we are suggesting to world leaders is that they
start to think intelligently. We would suggest that that means planning
ahead. To start with we need a giant family planning exercise to know at
what point we'll run out of food. How much land is available for
agriculture without lopping down more oxygen producing trees? How
much energy we can generate realistically when it matters most.
LOCAL AGENDA 21
PARLIAMENT A-Z HOUSE
OF LORDS A-Z UK
to the many people who died in Nazi concentration camps in WW2, the
European Convention of Human
Rights came into being. Anne's diaries rise above the eugenics
cruelty and persecution to shame the Nazi regime. She was crucified, but
did more in death than she might have done had she lived. The trilogy of
diaries above tell a similar tale, but thanks to the Human Rights
court, this story may end justly - but in any event, just like Ms Frank
the story shames a system that causes outrageous loss of time for its