Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. The term "mineral" encompasses not only the material's chemical composition but also the mineral's structure. Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salts to very complex silicates with thousands of known forms (organic compounds are usually excluded). The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
As a boy I was fascinated by the shapes and colours of crystals. One day while playing on the beach, underneath Beachy Head, I cracked open a large flint and was amazed to find bright crystals inside which to me, resembled diamonds. I also found a large nodule of iron pyrites, which looked like gold inside - fooled me, until I learned it was also called "fools gold." Today, as an engineer, I am still very much interested in the qualities of minerals. Because I need to know which to use to make cars and boats perform.
Mineral definition and classification
To be classified as a "true" mineral, a substance must be a solid and have a crystal structure. It must also be an inorganic, naturally-occurring, homogeneous substance with a defined chemical composition. The chemical composition may vary between end members of a mineral system. For example the plagioclase feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodium-rich albite (NaAlSi3O8) to calcium-rich anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) with four recognized intermediate compositions between. Mineral-like substances that don't strictly meet the definition are sometimes classified as mineraloids. Other natural-occurring substances are Nonminerals. Industrial minerals is a commercial term and refers to commercially valuable mined materials (see also Minerals and Rocks section below).
A crystal structure is the orderly geometric spatial arrangement of atoms in the internal structure of a mineral. There are 14 basic crystal lattice arrangements of atoms in three dimensions in the six crystal systems, and all crystal structures currently recognized fit in one of these 14 arrangements. This crystal structure is based on regular internal atomic or ionic arrangement that is often visible as the mineral form. Even when the mineral grains are too small to see or are irregularly shaped the crystal structure can be determined by X-ray analysis and/or optical microscopy.
Chemistry and crystal structure define together a mineral. In fact, two or more minerals may have the same chemical composition, but differ in crystal structure (these are known as polymorphs). For example, pyrite and marcasite are both iron sulfide. Similarly, some minerals have different chemical compositions, but the same crystal structure: for example, halite (made from sodium and chlorine), galena (made from lead and sulfur) and periclase (made from magnesium and oxygen) all share the same cubic crystal structure.
Crystal structure greatly influences a mineral's physical properties. For example, though diamond and graphite have the same composition (both are pure carbon), graphite is very soft, while diamond is the hardest of all known minerals.
There are currently just over 4,000 known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association, which is responsible for the approval of and naming of new mineral species found in nature.
Assortment of minerals from US Geological Survey
Minerals and rocks
A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure. A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals. (A rock may also include organic remains.) The specific minerals in a rock can vary a lot. Some minerals, like quartz, mica or feldspar are common, while others have been found in only one or two locations worldwide. Over half of the mineral species known are so rare that they have only been found in a handful of samples, and many are known from only one or two small grains.
Commercially valuable minerals and rocks are referred to as industrial minerals.
Physical properties of minerals
Classifying minerals can range from simple to very difficult. A mineral can be identified by several physical properties, some of them being sufficient for full identification without equivocation. In other cases, minerals can only be classified by more complex chemical or X-ray diffraction analysis; these methods, however, can be costly, time-consuming, and even risk damaging the sample.
Physical properties commonly used are :
Chemical properties of minerals
Minerals may be classified according to chemical composition. They are here categorized by anion group. The list below is in approximate order of their abundance in the Earth's crust. The list follows the Dana classification system.
The largest group of minerals by far are the silicates (most rocks are >95% silicates), which are composed largely of silicon and oxygen, with the addition of ions such as aluminium, magnesium, iron, and calcium. Some important rock-forming silicates include the feldspars, quartz, olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, garnets, and micas.
The carbonate minerals consist of those minerals containing the anion (CO3)2- and include calcite and aragonite (both calcium carbonate), dolomite (magnesium/calcium carbonate) and siderite (iron carbonate). Carbonates are commonly deposited in marine settings when the shells of dead planktonic life settle and accumulate on the sea floor. Carbonates are also found in evaporitic settings (e.g. the Great Salt Lake, Utah) and also in karst regions, where the dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonates leads to the formation of caves, stalactites and stalagmites. The carbonate class also includes the nitrate and borate minerals.
Sulfates all contain the sulfate anion, in the form SO42-. Sulfates commonly form in evaporitic settings where highly saline waters slowly evaporate, allowing the formation of both sulfates and halides at the water-sediment interface. Sulfates also occur in hydrothermal vein systems as gangue minerals along with sulfide ore minerals. Another occurrence is as secondary oxidation products of original sulfide minerals. Common sulfates include anhydrite (calcium sulfate), celestite (strontium sulfate), barite (barium sulfate), and gypsum (hydrated calcium sulfate). The sulfate class also includes the chromate, molybdate, selenate, sulfite, tellurate, and tungstate minerals.
The halides are the group of minerals forming the natural salts and include fluorite (calcium fluoride), halite (sodium chloride), sylvite (potassium chloride), and sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). Halides, like sulfates, are commonly found in evaporitic settings such as playa lakes and landlocked seas such as the Dead Sea and Great Salt Lake. The halide class includes the fluoride, chloride, and iodide minerals.
Oxides are extremely important in mining as they form many of the ores from which valuable metals can be extracted. They commonly occur as precipitates close to the Earth's surface, oxidation products of other minerals in the near surface weathering zone, and as accessory minerals in igneous rocks of the crust and mantle. Common oxides include hematite (iron oxide), magnetite (iron oxide), chromite (chromium oxide), spinel (magnesium aluminium oxide - a common component of the mantle), rutile (titanium dioxide), and ice (hydrogen oxide). The oxide class includes the oxide and the hydroxide minerals.
Many sulfides are economically important as metal ores. Common sulfides include pyrite (iron sulfide - commonly known as fools' gold), chalcopyrite (copper iron sulfide) and galena (lead sulfide). The sulfide class also includes the selenides, the tellurides, the arsenides, the antimonides, the bismuthinides, and the sulfosalts (sulfur and a second anion such as arsenic).
The phosphate mineral group actually includes any mineral with a tetrahedral unit AO4 where A can be phosphorus, antimony, arsenic or vanadium. By far the most common phosphate is apatite which is an important biological mineral found in teeth and bones of many animals. The phosphate class includes the phosphate, arsenate, vanadate, and antimonate minerals.
The Elemental group includes metals and intermetallic elements (gold, silver, copper), semi-metals and non-metals (antimony, bismuth, graphite, sulfur). This group also includes natural alloys, such as electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver), phosphides, silicides, nitrides and carbides (which are usually only found naturally in a few rare meteorites).
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Solar Cola - a taste for adventure
We are looking for distributors in America, Australia, Canada, Europe, and Japan. The state of the Cola market globally and in the UK is ripe for a fresh quality brand, with excellent potential for growth. According to ResearchandMarkets.com the UK drinks market is worth an estimated £53.5 billion, representing a 7% share of total consumer spending. The global soft drinks market is roughly the same percentage of total consumer spending for developed countries.
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