SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES - PITFALLS

 

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A modern and quite worrying phenomenon is the rise in the number of single females with one or more children.  It seems many young women rush to get pregnant and worry about the consequences afterwards, in the full knowledge the state will look after them from that time on.

 

Unsavory as this may be, this also presents a danger to single males who may be enticed into a relationship they would not otherwise entertain by various means, which we will go on to investigate.  The fact is that once a single man joins a single parent family, and provided the children don't put him off within the first few months, he will become smothered by circumstance.

 

In the early stages of the relationship, the new family member is promised anything to overcome objections to the relationship continuing. In the belief these promises are real, he might let go of his other commitments, and this is almost inevitable, since relationships absorb time like a council wastes money.

 

About a year in, children begin to think of the new addition to the family as a permanent fixture.  If a male, he becomes the substitute father, with all that entails.  Boys and girls have very different needs. Boys are generally easier for a substitute father to engage.  They like all the things most men do: Cars, boats, planes and motors.  Girls on the other hand are not so easy to find common ground. Girls like dancing, pink clothes and babies.

 

After considering the above, you may agree that it is easier for a single bloke to join a single mum with a young boy, than a young girl (or a mix) and you'd be right - unless the bloke is a homosexual, when he might at first share some common ground with a girl!

 

 

The Sword of Damocles

 

 

With the increase of in depth and very realistic television programs on the subject, plus the increase in sex education at schools, single parents and their children learn ruses to trap a partner on a long term basis. Let us suppose things are not working out.  All the promises the single mother made to trap her mate have been systematically abandoned. Financial pressures may cause problems, or perhaps the mother's parents start chiming in to squeeze more from the hapless bloke, who is now outnumbered at least 3:1 or more.

 

Let us say the single chap decides for the benefit of his sanity, he must try to salvage his earlier life.  Unless, the single mum changes, he is left with little choice, but at this point, single mother's really pour on the pressure.  This may result in shouting matches, where previously a cross word was not exchanged.  The single mum will try her best to get a wedding ring on her finger.  She may threaten suicide.

 

However, that is nothing compared to making allegations that may take away a blokes freedom. The classic is crying rape, or the threat of crying rape, where any half sensible mother, or child armed with accurate portrayals from their favorite TV series, usually succeed in persuading the authorities to mount an investigation on mere say so.

 

The problem for the unwary male, is that he may not know what is going on or read the warning signs before it is too late. Here are a few things to watch out for:-

 

  • The single female will encourage contact with her children in circumstances which she can later claim are suspicious.

  • The suicidal single mother, or the threat of suicide.

  • The single mother who self harms - she may self harm and tell her doctor it was you.

  • Beware the single female who keeps a diary with or without blank pages

  • The single female who encourages you to be alone with her children. - Do not put yourself in a position where you are alone with her children for any length of time - or preferably not at all - even if this spells the end of the relationship - it's better than facing a serious charge, of whatever the family might dream up later.

  • Make sure her children go to reputable schools - some schools are breeding grounds of loose behavior likely to generate sex based scandals

  • Leaving a single parent relationship. - Once a bloke has gone, the single mum may allege stalking or rape to gain attention, the same holds true of her children, especially girls aged 11 to 15 who do not attract boyfriends.

  • In the worst case scenarios a single mum may commit suicide when a boyfriend leaves.

 

It follows that less attractive mothers may stoop lower than more attractive women, who will simply move on to another target. It is of course harder for a single mother, the older she gets.

 

Commonly, single mothers and/or their children will seek attention or revenge at the close of a relationship. In the worst cases if all else fails, mothers may take their own lives.  It is rare for a child to do so, they will more usually claim molestation - and they don't need to prove it.  The police frequently prompt children and when these prompts are strung into a coherent performance, they will then record the child for a convincing video display to a jury or judge.

 

Children may rehearse themselves or with friends, especially those keen on acting, or actively taking acting or dancing lessons at school.  The type of school also plays a part in priming the children.  A school that has a reputation for loose sexual behavior between pupils, may be a breeding ground, where girls and boys boast about their sexual encounters. Girls, in particular those without boyfriends will not unnaturally feel left out.  Hence, the less attractive girls, or those who for other reasons that do not interact with the opposite sex, will be more likely to invent experiences.  They may hang around teachers during lunch breaks, since they may get male attention this way - and if you are a teacher, watch yourself.  In the words of Sting: "Young teacher, the subject of schoolgirl fantasy". 

 

Hardly surprising then that there are many instances of false convictions, some examples of which are given elsewhere with links to other sites. 

 

Whichever of these scenarios takes place, the effect on the partner leaving may cause long term and lasting damage to their life.  If the woman commits suicide, that will haunt him forever. If he is wrongly convicted of rape or assault, he may serve many years before discovery, or the injustice may never be identified.

 

Hence, be prudent. Don't rush in where life seems like heaven.  If at all possible agree everything in writing - a bit like a pre-nuptial agreement.  The moment something agreed, is not done - leave.   There is no known association which supports single males, unless they are a carer or teacher.

 

 

F.A.C.T. (Falsely Accused Carers and Teachers)
PO Box 3074
Cardiff CF3 3WZ
Tel: 029 2077 7499
E-mail: info@factuk.org
Website: www.factuk.org
Campaigning organisation and support group which provides help and advice to falsely accused and wrongly convicted carers and teachers throughout the UK. The website contains a range of information, leaflets, books and links.

 

Guidance for education staff and volunteers in schools
Website: www.lg-employers.gov.uk/conditions/education/allegations
This website has guidance on: 1) staff facing an allegation of abuse; 2) preventing 'abuse of trust' for education staff; and 3) the conduct of education staff working with young people.

 

We will be following an interesting case in Sussex, England, since the law has changed.  A girl of 14 going on 15 alleges assault (touching +) since 11.  The allegations follow the break up of a 3 year long relationship with am overweight  mother claiming suicidal thoughts in the early stages of the relationship, with reminders. Some three months after the girl believed her mother's boyfriend was not coming back, and after another rejection by her natural father, she alleged assault in the preceding years.

 

Is this an attention seeking cry for help, a mental disorder, blackmail, or did these events take place?  PA 20-11-06  (Full and exclusive rights to this story available)

 

 


 

 

A Tough Job


The above said, many single parent mothers find themselves in their predicament for no fault of their own.  Having children brings emotions and challenges to their lives that we could never have dreamed of. Being a mum or a dad forces us to learn new skills and make new decisions. When we become a parent, we rarely have the time to think about what we have achieved or how we do things. On these pages we have gathered information, advice and also stories from other parents to help us face those challenges.

 

Perhaps you are one of the 23% of young people living with a single parent? Maybe you've only ever had one parent, your parents have got divorced, they were never married in the first place or your family has been torn apart by bereavement. Whatever the reason for living in a single-parent family, you'll be pleased to hear that there's no evidence to support the fact that young people with one parent fare any worse in life than those with two. In fact, many young people who've lived through years of parental conflict and divorce find that life with a single parent is far more stable and happy. Certainly, a single parent family, where the mother finds a new boyfriend, is likely to cause the children additional issues, where previously they had free reign.

 

Lone parent life


Everybody knows that the traditional family is practically an endangered species and that all families work differently but it can feel weird if you've only ever lived in a one-parent family when everything around you, on the telly, in films and in ads, is screaming two. Coming from a one-parent family may well have made you feel different and awkward at times, but research has shown that family structure and type isn't as important as having someone who cares about you. It doesn't matter if that person is a biological parent or not - having someone who loves you and cares about you is all that really matters.

 

 

Hope's story


"My family just is. It's different from other people's families, but I don't mind because who says what a family should be like?" *

 

 

Claudia's story


"When I was little, you know you can always wish on a dandelion. I always used to say, 'Oh please can my parents be together,' but I don't do that any more. That's how they are, I can't change it. I just thought, well, it's not going to happen, so you might as well be optimistic about the future, rather than dwell on the past." *

 

 

All out war


Are your parents divorced or separated but still gunning for each other? Are you getting caught in the crossfire? It can be like living through their divorce all over again. The best way to tackle this situation is to let them both know how you feel about the way they're acting. Refuse to be their messenger for example, - it may help them to come to their senses. Our Parents with Problems section might help.

 

 


 

 

A single parent is a parent with one or more children, who is not living with the child[ren]'s other parent. The legal definition of single parenthood may vary according to local laws of nations or provinces.

 

Single parenthood may occur as a result of loss (death, separation, divorce, abandonment by one parent), or by choice (single parent adoption, donor insemination, egg donor/surrogate motherhood, choosing to carry to term an unexpected pregnancy and raise the child on one's own).

 

More than 25% of children in the U.S. live with only one parent (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1997). Research about the welfare of children in single parent families varies. Many factors influence the outcome of how children fare: parent's age, education level, and occupation, family income, family's support network from friends and extended family members (including the absent parent if available). Further, outcomes in families where single-parenthood is chosen is frequently better, as the single parent is typically older, has established employment and social supports, and has considered the pros and cons of raising a child alone.

 

 

Single parent demographics

 

 

Australia

 

In 2003, 14% of all Australian households were single parent families. Since 2001, 31% of babies born in Australia were born to unmarried mothers.

 

 

United Kingdom

 

The following information comes from One Parent Families, a British charity for lone parents. For more information see [1].

  • There are 1.9 million one-parent families in Britain in 2006, caring for nearly 3 million children. Lone parents now make up just under one-quarter of all families with dependant children.

  • Lone parenthood is now often a stage in the life-cycle, lasting on average for around five years. It is estimated that between one third and one half of the next generation of children will spend some of their childhood in a lone-parent family.

  • Around ninety-two percent lone parents are women; eight percent are lone fathers.

  • Around three in five lone parents are ex-married and only one in seven have never lived with the father of their child.

  • The median age for a lone parent is 35, and at any one time only 3 per cent of lone parents are teenagers.

  • Lone parents from black or minority ethnic communities make up 12 per cent of all lone parents.

  • Children living with lone parents are more likely to be young children, with one-third of lone mothers having a child under five.

  • Lone parents have a higher incidence of poor health than other family types and 26 per cent have a sick or disabled child.

 

 

United States

 

Today in the United States, being raised by a single parent is not uncommon. About three in ten children live in a single parent home. The most common type of single parent home is one with only a mother. However, single father homes are the fastest growing type of family situation; the amount of single fathers has grown by 60% in the last ten years alone. This commonly relates to the courts increasing consideration of the stability and permanence of the father's situations.

 

Loss of a partner may cause the single parent to be financially burdened due to the fact that one of the "breadwinners" is gone. If the single parent is the breadwinner, he or she has less opportunity to work than before, when another parent was available, unless another person is available to care for the child or children. Thus, initially in all divorce situations, the costs of maintaining a household increases, and the pool of skills needed to maintain a household is halved. The commensurate reduction in parental supervision and training for the children is charted in a variety of increases in social indicators, such as increased juvenile delinquency and increased unmarried teen births.

 

 

Single-parent characteristics

  • Single parenthood can be very challenging.

  • Single parents are very likely to include their children in the day-to-day running of the family. The children may have to share more responsibility of doing chores and looking after themselves than other children.

  • Single parents often discuss things with their children that parents in two parent families often discuss with each other (e.g. the shopping list, what to do over school holidays).

  • Many parents and children have to adjust to children moving between the household of both parents.

  • The supervision and instruction of adolescent children is often dramatically reduced in homes with only one adult. The adolescent may experience many adult responsibilities far earlier. There are many examples of how this often results in a much higher rates of motor vehicle accidents, drug and alcohol experimentation, and teen pregnancy.

  • Children from single parent families who have considerable freedom and independence in family affairs may experience difficulty at school, where more age-appropriate direction and guidance is available from a larger number of adults.

  • Often single parent families have less income than two parent homes.

  • Parenting a baby alone can be very stressful for any single parent. Babies need 24 hour care, and parents need rest, time off, help, support, and someone to talk to.

 

 

 

Media depictions/characteristics

 

The mass media in America tends to portray the majority of single mothers are impoverished, from urban "ghettos" or rural areas, from racial minority groups, promiscuous or "loose", and even militant feminists threw out or abandoned their "abusive" husbands (sometimes they are "deadbeat dads") unable to help pay the bills or refused child-rearing responsbilities.

 

Not every single mother has these traits, and the majority of them are white (despite the prevalence of single motherhood in the African American and US Latino communities), most lived in the suburbs and small towns, originally came from the middle-class though poverty has accompanied single motherhood, never involved in multiple sex partners, and of course a representation of single mothers in broken marriages without an issue of neglect or misogyny.

 

To generalize a single mother adds onto social stigmas relating to her choice in having a baby, or this occurred by random incidence (divorce, abandonment or out of wedlock). Social scientists don't want to overexamplify traits and child care/support activists come to their defense. In fact, most single mothers have any type of support by family or/and close friends.

 

 

Single motherhood

 

Single motherhood is by far the most common instance of single parenting; in the US, single mothers outnumber single fathers four to one. Single mothers may have a hard time providing for their families.

 

Some studies conclude that women generally have lower paying jobs (though other studies have found that the wage gap, or Income disparity, is largely due to choice, not discrimination).

 

In the US, a large percentage of single mothers have children in a younger age than most married mothers, and more of them failed to graudate high school or/and unable to finish college education, thus aren't able to have an average wage or income, a difficult situation unless there are welfare and health care programs available to support her and child.

 

Thus, single mothers must contend with both financial and child rearing burdens. If a parent makes less money, and thus has to work longer hours, she has less time for her child.

 

In the US and western countries, painful social stigmas related to single motherhood has disappeared in the 1990s by ongoing cultural changes to accept single motherhood as a lifestyle choice, despite conservatives objected to it as liberalism or over moral and religious objections.

 

In several studies in Europe and America, children of single mothers are psychologically unaffected by their circumstances than once thought, and they dealt with theories on the outcome of male children who grew up with only a female parent.

 

Society continues to stereotype boys/men of single mothers as "weak" or "gentle", and even debunked theories of proneness to criminality, depression, suicide, poverty, drug abuse, unemployment, and failure to maintain a sexual/romantic relationship.

 

 

Single fatherhood

 

In the U.S., fathers make up about 20% of single parents. The role of fathers, married or single, has been changing. Today, fathers are more likely to help children in a classroom setting and do household chores than in the past. Historically, fathers were not socialized to be primary caregivers, although many men did raise children on their own due to high rates of maternal death. The financial and lifestyle hardships of single fathers is similar to those of single mothers.

 

Female children living in a single father home are less likely to reach menarche at an earlier age than those living in two parent homes.

 

 

 


 

 

 

The scales of injustice


Miscarriages of justice are an everyday occurence. As the government plans a thorough overhaul of criminal justice, it needs to ask why so many unsafe convictions are overturned. The wrongly convicted are victims too.


The Observer Crime and Justice debate

Sunday July 28, 2002

The government's criminal justice reforms, proposed in the recently published White Paper, are based on a 'single clear priority' to 'rebalance' the criminal justice system 'in favour of the victims of crime' and to 'bring more offenders to justice'. The explicit goal is to make it easier for the prosecution to secure guilty verdicts and to convict more people. This would seem to be at odds with the reality of criminal justice in England and Wales. The prison population stands at an all time high of over 70 thousand and the prosecution already achieves the conviction of over 95 per cent of defendants at magistrates' courts and 87 per cent of defendants in the Crown Court.

 

The White Paper seems to be to forget that that not all of those brought to trial will be guilty. A reform agenda framed in a language of 'putting the victim first' overlooks the fact that there are many victims of the present criminal justice system. Any human system can make mistakes, and that miscarriages of justice can and do occur. But, just how many miscarriages of justice victims of the present system are there?

 

We tend to think about miscarriages of justice as rare and exceptional occurrences. Prominent cases such as the Birmingham six, Guildford Four, Bridgewater four, M25 three, Cardiff three, Stephen Downing, and so on create the impression that miscarriages of justice are seen as very much an intermittent, high profile and small scale problem; that there are very few victims in the context of the statistics of all criminal convictions. But there are many more cases than those which receive prominent coverage in the media. Those cases of criminal conviction that are routinely quashed by the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division), or by the Crown Court for convictions previously obtained in the magistrates' court have received no attention at all.

 

If we pay more attention to these routinely quashed convictions, we find a scale of miscarriage of justice to fundamentally challenge any notion that the current system of criminal justice is weighted too much in favour of the defendant. 

 

The Lord Chancellor's Department's statistics on successful appeals against criminal conviction show that in the decade 1989-1999 the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) abated over 8,470 criminal convictions - a yearly average of 770. In addition, there are around 3,500 quashed criminal convictions a year at the Crown Court for convictions obtained at the magistrates' courts. 

 

Contrary to popular perceptions, then, wrongful criminal convictions are a normal, everyday feature of the criminal justice system - the system doesn't just sometimes get it wrong, it gets it wrong everyday, of every week, of every month of every year. With the result that thousands of innocent people experience a whole variety of harmful consequences that wrongful criminal convictions engender.

 

Justice for All also states that there is an 'absolute determination to create a system that meets the needs of society', 'wins the trust of citizens' and 'acquits the innocent'. Accordingly, the government might think about proposing reforms that would counter the causes of the thousands of routine wrongful criminal convictions that occur each year under the present criminal justice system. These (still) include misdirection by judges which is the most common cause of routine successful appeals; unreliable confessions such as in the cases of Robert Downing, the Cardiff Newsagent three, Andrew Evans, and King and Waugh who between them spent almost a century of wrongful imprisonment based on the unreliable confessions of the vulnerable.

 

Financial and other incentives which created unreliable 'cell confession evidence' that featured most recently in the case of Reg Dudley and Robert Maynard who each served over 20 years of wrongful imprisonment as a consequence of a 'bargain' between the police and an informant who received a reduced sentence for his part in a robbery in exchange for the necessary evidence for conviction; non-disclosure of vital evidence as in the case of John Kamara who also spent 20 years of wrongful imprisonment because over 200 statements were withheld from his defence team; malicious accusations such as in the case of Roy Burnett who spent 15 years of wrongful imprisonment for a rape that the Court of Appeal said 'almost certainly never happened', or Roger Beardmore who spent three years in prison (of a nine year sentence) for the paedophile rape of a young girl who later admitted that she had lied to get her mother's attention; badly conducted defences such as in the case of Mark Day who was convicted for murder with two others despite the fact that he did not know his co-defendants, a fact that his defence failed to bring to the court's attention; and, 'racism' such as in the case of the M25 three, the case in which three black men were wrongly imprisoned for 10 years despite the fact that witnesses had claimed that two of the offenders were white and four of six victims had referred to at least one of the offenders as white. And this is by no means exhaustive list of the causes of injustice.

 

When thinking about proposing reforms of the criminal justice system to reduce the conviction of the innocent it might also be pertinent to include some of the possible causes of miscarriages of justice that might never feature in the official statistics of successful appeals. Likely candidates include the 'time loss rule', under which when the wrongly imprisoned apply for an appeal they are advised that if their appeal is ultimately unsuccessful it could result in substantial increases to their sentence. The effect of this is to transform what was intended as a minor check on groundless applications into a major barrier in some meritorious cases. There are also the miscarriages of justice that can result from charge, plea and sentence 'bargaining' and the 'parole deal'. All of these induce innocent people to plead guilty to criminal offences that they have not committed and present a 'dark figure' of miscarriages of justice that can never be fully quantified.

 

It is clear that the present system of criminal justice is, indeed, in urgent need of reform. But this should not be in the direction of a relaxation of the system in favour of obtaining more guilty verdicts and convicting more people. Rather, the present system needs to a reformed in the direction of 're-balancing' it with its stated aims, namely, to safeguard against convicting of the innocent. The present system makes far too many mistakes. Convicting more of those brought to trial will undoubtedly mean making even more mistakes and convicting even more innocent victims.

 

Michael Naughton is a postgraduate researcher looking at the harmful consequences of miscarriages of justice in the Department of Sociology, University of Bristol.

 

Send us your views

 

Email Observer site editor Sunder Katwala at observer@guardianunlimited.co.uk with comments on articles or ideas for future pieces. You can write to the author of this piece at M.Naughton@Bristol.ac.uk.

 

About Observer Comment Extra

 

The Observer website carries additional online commentary each week, with articles responding to recent pieces and offering additional coverage of the major issues. Please get in touch if you would like to offer a piece and see Observer Comment for this week's pieces. Online commentaries are also trailed in the print pages of the newspaper.




 

 


Observer special reports
Crime and justice: The Observer debate

Let us know your views
Write to us at letters@observer.co.uk
28.04.2002: How to offer a piece

More comment
28.07.2002: Michael Naughton: the scale of wrongful convictions

Children in prison: Observer campaign
Justice special: campaign updates
28.07.2002: Barry Goldson: How prison damages children
28.07.2002: Children behind bars: why we back the campaign
14.07.2002: Comment: Scrap this law
14.07.2002: Letters: A welcome campaign for social justice
07.07.2002: Suicide fear for teen victims of Blunkett's get-tough rules
07.07.2002: Our five-point manifesto
Get in touch at childrenbehindbars@observer.co.uk

Useful links
14.07.2002: Crime and justice on the web

More crime and justice comment
21.07.2002: Leader: New thinking on justice at last
21.07.2002: Courtenay Griffiths QC: Counsel for the defence
14.07.2002: Mary Riddell: Addressing the causes
14.07.2002: Martin Bright: time to understand a little more?
14.07.2002: Martin Wright: the case for restorative justice
14.07.2002: Nick Cohen: Dando case injustice
07.07.2002: Wrongly convicted: 'We were victims too'
07.07.2002: Cristina Odone: Cherie has got it right
07.07.2002: Lee Bridges: Smart reform, not populism
30.06.2002: Peter Neyroud: We must make the law work for all
07.07.2002: Louise Dominian: Getting rehabilitation right
23.06.2002: Leader: Be cautious on crime reform
02.06.2002: Mary Riddell: Why Blunkett is dangerous
Comment highlights: best of Mary Riddell
02.06.2002: David Rose: Short straw for law
02.06.2002: Martin Bright: Labour's criminal justice confusions

Observer investigation
23.06.2002: Focus: Tougher justice
23.06.2002: Criminals go free in legal crisis

The Observer prisons debate
05.05.2002: David Rose: prison does work
19.05.2002: Juliet Lyon: Prison must be the last resort
26.05.2002: Nick Cohen: Porridge oafs
03.02.2002: David Blunkett: my prison reform agenda
10.02.2002: Mark Leech: why part-time porridge won't work

More Observer specials
Asylum myths and reality
Liberty Watch
Drugs Uncovered
Race in Britain

More from Guardian Unlimited
Special report: home affairs

 

 

 


 

 

 

LINKS and REFERENCE

  • Bankston, Carl L. and Caldas, Stephen J., Family Structure, Schoolmates, and Racial Inequalities in School Achievement, Journal of Marriage and the Family 60:3 (1998), 715-723.

  • Hilton, J., Desrochers, S.,Devall, E. Comparison of Role Demands, Relationships, and Child Functioning is Single-Mother, Single-Father, and Intact Families. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage ,35(?) 29-56.

  • Mulkey, L.; Crain, R; Harrington, A.M. One-Parent Households and Achievement: Economic and Behavioral Explanations of a Small Effect. Sociology of Education, 1992, 65, 1, Jan, 48-65

  • Pong, Suet-ling The School Compositional Effect of Single Parenthood on 10th Grade Achievement, Sociology of Education 71:1 (1998), 23-42.

  • Quinlan, Robert J. Father absence, parental care, and female reproductive development. Evolution and Human Behavior, Volume 24, Issue 6, November 2003, Pages 376-390

  • Richards, Leslie N.; Schmiege, Cynthia J. Family Relations, Vol. 42, No. 3, Family Diversity. (Jul., 1993), pp. 277-285.

  • Risman, Barbara J., and Park, Kyung. (1988). Just The Two of Us: Parent-Child Relationships in Single-Parent Homes. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1988, 50, 4, Nov, 1049.

  • Sacks, G. (September 4, 2005) “Boys without fathers is not a logical new idea.” Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (Little Rock, Arkansas)

  • States News Service. (2005 July 20). “America’s Children: Family Structure and Children’s Well-Being

  • *Quotes taken from Neale B and Wade A (2000) 'Parent problems! Children's views on life when parents split up', Young Voice/Nuffield.

 

SOME PROMINENT MISCARRIAGES OF JUSTICE:

 

Simon Hall

David Watkins

Katie Davis

Leon Benjamin Forde

Warren Blackwell

Darryl Gee

 

 

NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR ONE PARENT FAMILIES

 

Registered charity no: 230750

Email web@oneparentfamilies.org.uk.

 

 

 


 

 

Also in the news


This is a list of the most recent items found in the national press concerning single parents. Please use the Message Board if you want to comment on a news item.

Britain must target child poverty (29.Sep.2006)
Family-income poverty doesn't only affect children's educational achievements (Response, September 26), and thus their opportunities and choices in the labour market, but also their future health and its associated costs.

Poverty at home leads to inequality in the classroom (26.Sep.2006)
Improving schools is vital - but the issue of family income can't be avoided,

Vulnerable families need support, not blame (25.Sep.2006)
The proposal to provide early support for vulnerable families through health visitors is welcome, but the suggestion that they predict which parents are at risk of bringing up children who will be offenders is dangerous.

Ruling the roost (20.Sep.2006)
The Incredible Years parenting programme is being held up by ministers as a model of good practice

Family tradition (13.Sep.2006)
The chief executive of children's charity NCH welcomes the government's latest plans for vulnerable children but tells Alison Benjamin that removing benefits as a method of coercion for problem parents will not work

Alan Johnson's speech (13.Sep.2006)
Full text of the education secretary's speech to the Social Market Foundation

Should cookery lessons be compulsory? (10.Sep.2006)
From 2008, cookery classes will be offered to all secondary schoolchildren

What hard-pressed parents really need in the way of help (06.Sep.2006)
By Sue Cohen, director of Single Parent Action Network
The Prime Minister might be retreating from the controversy of last week's "baby Asbos" speech, but labelling and stigma still seem to be the order of the day.

Action at birth needed to save problem children, insists Blair (06.Sep.2006)
· PM defends plan to help young in troubled homes
· More cash promised to aid socially excluded

Antisocial approach to children (04.Sep.2006)
Behind Tony Blair's plans to support early intervention in the lives of "problem children" because they might become a "menace to society"

 

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Veins

 

 

 

 

 

SIMPLE LIFE FORMS

As in Amoeba, plankton (phyla: protozoa)

ECHINODERMS  

As in Starfish (phyla: Echinodermata)

ANNELIDS  

As in Earthworms (phyla: Annelida)

MOLLUSKS  

Such as octopus (phyla: Mollusca)

ARTHROPODS  

Crabs, spiders, insects (phyla: Arthropoda)

CRUSTACEANS  

such as crabs (subphyla: Crustacea)

ARACHNIDS  

Spiders (class: Arachnida)

INSECTS 

Ants (subphyla: Uniramia class: Insecta)

FISH  

Sharks, Tuna (group: Pisces)

AMPHIBIANS  

Such as frogs (class: Amphibia)

REPTILES  

As in Crocodiles, Snakes (class: Reptilia)

BIRDS  

Such as Eagles, Crow (class: Aves)

DINOSAURS

Tyranosaurus Rex, Brontosaurus (Extinct)

MAMMALS  

Warm blooded animals (class: Mammalia)

MARSUPIALS 

Such as Kangaroos (order: Marsupialia)

PRIMATES  

Gorillas, Chimpanzees (order: Primates)

RODENTS  

such as Rats, Mice (order: Rodentia)

CETACEANS 

such as Whales & Dolphins ( order:Cetacea)

ANTHROPOLOGY

Neanderthals, Homo Erectus (Extinct)

HUMANS - MAN

Homo Sapiens  THE BRAIN

LIFE ON EARTH

Which includes PLANTS non- animal life

 

 


 

A taste for adventure capitalists

 

 

Solar Cola - the healthier cola alternative

 

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