is a brand of portable digital media player designed and marketed
Computer. Devices in the iPod family provide a simple user
interface designed around a central scroll wheel (barring the iPod
shuffle). Most iPod models store media on a built-in hard
drive, while the smaller iPod shuffle and iPod
nano use flash
memory. Like most digital
audio players, an iPod can serve as an external data
storage device when connected to a computer.
Discontinued versions of the iPod include two generations of the
mini and four generations of the full-sized iPod, all of which had monochrome
screens except for the iPod photo of the fourth generation. As of
September 2005, the lineup consists of the fifth-generation iPod which
can play videos, the iPod nano which has a color screen, and the iPod
shuffle; all three iterations were released in 2005.
bundled software used for uploading music, photos, and movies to the
iPod is called iTunes.
iTunes is a music jukebox application that stores a comprehensive
library of the music on a user's computer, as well as being able to
play and rip
it from a CD. The most recent incarnations of iPod and iTunes have
video playing and organization features. Other forms of data can be
added to iPod as if it were a normal data storage device.
Computer often refers to the player as iPod, without use of the
article; the. Apple's web site reflects this usage (for
example, "iPod incorporates the same touch-sensitive Apple
Click Wheel that debuted on iPod mini"), which resembles
Apple's use of the words Macintosh
The company has many other products with a lowercase "i" in
front of the name, including iSight, iChat, iTunes, iDVD, and iBook.
When Apple first introduced the iMac, the "i" stood for
internet (as well as a possible tongue-in-cheek reference to Steve
Jobs's title with the company at the time, interim CEO,
abbreviated iCEO), meaning that the iMac shipped with everything you
would need for a connection, but the prefix stuck, as the brand
recognition associated with it has positive effects on the sales
of Apple products. Recently, some media have started referring to the
generation primarily born in the late 1980s,
and which in particular has made the iPod popular, as the iGeneration,
suggesting that the "i" family of products may have a
far-reaching cultural impact.
Fadell first conceived the iPod outside of Apple. When he
demonstrated his idea to Apple, the company hired him as an
independent contractor to bring his project to the market, putting him
in charge of assembling the team that developed the first two
generations of the device. Apple's Industrial Design Group, working
under the direction of Jonathan
Ive designed the subsequent incarnations.
Xavier Naidoo 30GB Collector's iPod
originally released the iPod on October
as a Mac-compatible product. In 2002,
Apple released third-generation iPods that could be formatted for
either Mac or Microsoft
Windows. At the same time, they also introduced a Windows version
of the iTunes software that maintains the iPod music library. As
of October 2004, iPod dominated digital music player sales in the United
States, with over 90% of the market for hard-drive-based players
and over 70% of the market for all types of players. The iPod has sold
at a tremendous rate, now past 30 million units since its release.
Apple has posited that the iPod has a "halo
effect", encouraging users of non-Apple products to switch to
other Apple products, such as to Macintosh
2005, Apple Computer faced two lawsuits claiming patent infringement
by the iPod and its associated technologies: Advanced Audio Devices
claimed the iPod breached their patent on a "music jukebox"
portfolio company Pat-rights filed suit on behalf of inventor Keung
Tse Ho, claiming that Apple's FairPlay
technology breached their patent on " Protection of software
against unauthorized use".
application to the United
States Patent and Trademark Office for a patent
on "rotational user inputs", as used in the iPod's
interface, received a third "non-final rejection" (NFR) in
in August 2005, Creative
Technology, one of Apple's main rivals in the MP3
player market, announced that it too held a patent on part of the
music selection interface used by the iPod (U.S. Patent No. 6,928,433:
"Automatic hierarchical categorization of music by metadata",
which Creative dubbed the 'Zen Patent', granted on 9
can play MP3, AAC/M4A, Protected
AAC, AIFF, Audible
file formats. The fifth-generation iPod can also play .m4v (H.264)
and .mp4 (MPEG-4) video
file formats. The Windows version of iTunes can transcode
WMA files to an iPod supported format. WMA files with copy protection
cannot be played in iTunes or be copied to an iPod. Reviewers have
criticized the iPod's inability to play some other formats, in
particular the Ogg
Vorbis and FLAC
designed the iPod to work with the iTunes media library software,
which lets users manage the music libraries on their computers and on
their iPods. iTunes can automatically synchronize
a user's iPod with specific playlists or with the entire contents of a
music library each time an iPod connects to a host computer. Users may
also set a rating (out of 5 stars) on any song, and can synchronize
that information to an iTunes music library.
Apart from iTunes there
are also several third-party applications
available that can be used to transfer songs to the iPod. A feature
that iTunes lacks, but most third-party applications have is an option
to transfer songs from an iPod back to the computer.
addition to playing music and storing files, the iPod has limited PDA
functionality: the unit can synchronize a user's contacts and schedule
with programs such as iCal
Outlook. Mozilla's Sunbird
support the use of iCal (.ics) format calendar files. These programs
may be used to update the iPod Calendar on any supported operating
system, including Windows; originally, the files in Windows had to be
manually dragged and dropped into the Calendar directory on the iPod,
but iTunes 5.0 added the option to automatically synchronize these
files to the iPod.
can also display notes, and hence host simple games and store
restaurant information. However, iPod has limitations as a PDA, since
users cannot edit this information on the iPod but only on a computer.
(with the exception of the iPod shuffle) also feature games. First and
second generation iPods feature "Brick", a clone of the Breakout
arcade game from Atari
(originally created by Apple cofounder Steve
Wozniak). third, fourth, and fifth generation include Brick, along
with three other games:
a game in which the user controls a turret and attempts to shoot
down paratroopers and the helicopters which release them.
Parachute is similar to the Apple
II game Sabotage
by Mark Allen.
a simple card game resembling the Klondike
solitaire card game.
Quiz: an interactive music quiz featuring the user's own
songs. The game plays a portion of a random song and prompts the
user to identify it from a list of 5 (or of 4 on the iPod mini). A
song drops off the list every few seconds. The faster the users
choose the right song, the more points they get. Music Quiz became
available through a free firmware
update for third generation iPods released in October 2003 and
later came standard with the iPod mini and fourth generation iPods.
No record is kept of the score, and there is no limit on the
amount of songs played; however, the songs repeat after the first
second generation iPod
nano, and fifth-generation iPod, all previous models of iPod
connectivity. Apple stopped shipping FireWire cables with iPods in
favor of only using Hi-Speed USB
(USB 2.0), more than likely a cost-cutting and size-saving measure
since many Windows-based PCs do not have FireWire ports. iPods can
recharge their internal batteries using either FireWire (all
generations) or USB power (only fourth generation and later) while
connected to a computer or to an iPod AC power adapter. Both USB-based
and FireWire-based power adapters exist. First- and second-generation
iPods had a standard FireWire connection port. Newer iPods, iPod minis
and iPod nanos use a proprietary 30-pin dock
connector to connect the iPod to a computer’s FireWire or USB
port with a proprietary cable. The iPod shuffle has a built-in USB
connector that plugs into a standard USB port for recharging and for
data transfer, but a connector for AC charging can be purchased.
first three generations of iPod used two ARM
running at 90 MHz, while later models have variable speed chips which
run at a peak of 80 MHz to save battery
life. iPods use 1.8-in (46-mm) ATA hard drives (with a nonstandard
connector) made by Toshiba.
The iPod mini uses one-inch hard drives made by Hitachi.
The iPod has a 32-MiB
chip which contains a bootloader,
a program that tells the device to load the operating system from
another medium (in this case, the hard
drive). All iPods, except for the 60GB fifth-generation iPod, have
a portion of which holds the iPod OS loaded from the firmware
and the vast majority of which serves to cache songs loaded from the
hard drive. For example, an iPod could spin the hard disk up once and
copy about 30 MiB of upcoming songs on a playlist into RAM, thus
saving power by not having the drive spin up for each song. (The 60GB
fifth-generation iPod holds 64 MiB of RAM, to further extend battery
iPods come with earbud headphones
with distinctive white
cords, a color chosen to match the design of the original iPod. The
white cords have become symbolic of the iPod brand, and advertisements
for the devices feature them prominently. Despite the fact that new
generations of the iPod now appear in black as well as white, the
cords still remain white, although hacking and modding weblog Hack
A Day has posted a hack on how to make black iPod earphones for a
most headphones that come bundled with other hardware, the stock white
earbuds are fairly low quality, and some users choose to replace them.
Users rate the substandard bass response as the most apparent negative
characteristic found in the standard headphones. They are also known
to develop a clicking noise at volume peaks, due to the membrane being
displaced. This is often easily solved by applying a small amount of
suction to the problem earphone.
signature earphones have such good recognition characteristics that
they can become a liability — after crime in the NYC subway system
rose immensely due entirely to iPod theft, the New
York Police Department issued a warning advising iPod owners to
replace the earphones, so as to not make themselves a target.
original iPod interacted only with Macintosh computers running Mac
OS 9 or Mac
OS X until July
when Apple began selling a Windows-compatible iPod, with its internal
hard drive formatted in FAT32
instead of the original HFS
Apple released a Windows version of iTunes on October
previously, Windows users needed third-party software such as Musicmatch
Jukebox (included with Windows iPods before the release of the
Windows version of iTunes), ephPod,
to manage the music on their iPods.
iPod with its hard drive formatted as HFS+ operated only with a
Macintosh, because Windows did not recognize HFS+, but since the
Macintosh could handle FAT32, an iPod formatted as FAT32 could operate
with a Macintosh as well as with a PC. All iPods ship with FAT32 by
default and are reformatted for use with Macintosh computers.
leaves slightly more space available to store data, and it allowed the
iPod to serve as a boot
disk for a Macintosh computer. The ability to use an iPod as a
boot disk for a Macintosh computer was lost when Apple removed
FireWire with the introduction of the fifth-generation iPod since none
of the G5-based Macintosh models can boot from an external USB drive.
project has successfully ported an ARM
version of the Linux
kernel to run on iPods. It currently supports first through third
generation iPods, and features simple installers for Mac OS X and
Windows. A SourceForge
project exists for the project,
and copious documentation appears online.
iPod uses standard USB and FireWire mass-storage connectivity, and
therefore any system with mass-storage support can mount it and use it
as an external hard drive. The iPod will also charge from any powered
USB or Firewire port, regardless of software support. A special
database file serves to list the songs available to play, however, so
users require a program such as iTunes to upload songs. As
of 2005 only gtkpod
offers such functionality for Linux
and other Unix
variants. Apple has not yet released a Linux version of the software
used to flash the firmware of the iPod.
Robbin headed the iPod firmware team at Apple. His team integrated
the core firmware from PortalPlayer
with the user interface library developed by Pixo.
(The founder of Pixo had worked on the Apple
Newton, a personal
digital assistant formerly produced by Apple.) The Pixo libraries
provide the user interface, though the iPod photo has incorporated
some visual elements from Mac OS X, such as the animated Aqua
style progress bar. More recent iPods, such as the nano and 5th
Generation, also incorporate the "brushed-metal" effect,
previously used in iTunes before version 5.0, in their stopwatch and
screen lock features. Until the release of iPod mini, the user
interface of all iPods used "Chicago",
the font used on the original Macintosh computer from 1984.
The iPod mini uses the "Espy Sans" font (previously seen in eWorld,
the Newton, and Copland),
while the color fourth-generation iPods (previously known as iPod
photo) and fifth-generation iPods use Myriad
Pro, Apple's current corporate typeface.
Internal view of a third-generation
left to right:
intact third-generation iPod.
front of the iPod casing (facedown). The lighter green circuit
board controls the iPod (and leaves room for the battery
to fit beside it), and the darker green board beneath it controls
the touch-scroll wheel and the buttons. Note three connectors: the
battery connects in the lower-right corner; the hard drive
connector lies to the left of the black area in the lower left;
and the headphone jack,
wired remote control jack, and Hold switch (all located on the top
of the iPod) connect as a single plug in the top right.
drive, surrounded by a layer of soft rubber
which also extends beneath it to insulate it from the circuit
board. The layer of rubber also helps to protect a spinning hard
drive from shock damage while the owner of the iPod moves about.
rear of the iPod. Wires connect the ports and switch on the top of
the case to a small plug. A hole on the bottom of the case allows
access to the dock connector port on the circuit board.
unit's case snaps together, with no screws
involved (though the fourth generation has some glue holding the
battery in place). The plastic front of the case has clips which lock
under a ridge inside the rim of the metal case back. A servicer can
pry the iPod open by carefully inserting a small non-metal screwdriver
to pull the metal away from the clips. iPod
contains a small internal speaker
which generates the scroll-wheel clicks and alarm
clock beep sound, but this internal speaker cannot play music.
(other than the iPod shuffle) have five buttons:
(which backs up one level in the menus)
(which skips back through tracks in play)
(which skips forward through tracks in play)
(the button in the center of the scroll wheel; this selects a menu
or a (Note that fourth and fifth-generation iPods, iPod minis, and
iPod nanos incorporate these buttons into the "click
wheel" scroll wheel.)
'Hold' switch also exists on the top of the unit. Setting this switch
to display orange
will make the buttons and scroll wheel unresponsive, so that users do
not activate them accidentally.
and fifth generation iPods, second generation iPod minis, iPod nanos
and iPod shuffles also automatically pause playback when headphones
are unplugged from the headphone jack.
with FireWire ports can be put into FireWire Disk Mode, in which it
behaves like a FireWire hard drive without any of the additional iPod
iPod unable to start (due to either a firmware or a hardware problem)
displays the "sad
iPod" image, reminiscent of the sad
Mac icon of earlier Macintosh computers.
first generation pink iPod
mini (left), and a first generation iPod
currently markets three distinct players bearing the iPod name. Some
models come with different capacities (a higher capacity allows the
storage of more music) or with different designs. The model range as
iPod mini (4 GB and 6 GB and in various colors) are now discontinued,
having been replaced by the iPod nano. The iPod U2
Special Edition was also discontinued. The Harry
Potter 20 GB Collector's fourth-generation iPod was replaced by
the Harry Potter 30 GB Collector's iPod, which is simply a
fifth-generation iPod with a Harry Potter engraving and the Harry
Potter audiobooks pre-loaded.
product revisions have taken place since the original model of iPod
appeared, leading to the existence of five distinct generations.
As with most hard drive-based devices, the actual drive space
available for music, photo, video and data storage does not quite
attain the advertised capacity. This comes about because the capacity
advertised uses metric prefixes, not binary prefixes. For example,
a 4 GB iPod mini actually had 3.77 GiB
of usable storage. Some of this is also taken up by the iPod's firmware.
all iPods have roughly the same size and the same capabilities, the
design has undergone several revisions since its introduction to the
market. Five distinct generations of iPods exist, commonly known as:
first, second, third, fourth and fifth generations.
any generation of iPods, various models with different sizes of hard
drives have come onto the market at different price points. During the
third generation, three sizes of iPods have coexisted in the
marketplace at any given time, priced at US
$299, $399, and $499. Currently, Apple sells two sizes of iPod: a 30
GB hard drive for $299, and a 60 GB model for $399. Note that Apple
claims that 1 gigabyte of storage will hold 250, 4-minute songs in 128
Encoding songs at higher bitrates will take up more space on the hard
drive. One can scale this proportion up; the current 30-gigabyte iPod
can hold roughly 7,500 songs, though the Apple website states that
'actual formatted capacity may be lower.'
announced on October
the original iPod cost $399 with a 5 GB hard
Critics panned the unit's price, but iPod proved an instant hit in the
marketplace, quickly overtaking earlier hard drive MP3 players such as
Jukebox. Apple announced a 10 GB version ($499) in March 2002.
designed a mechanical scroll
wheel and outsourced the implementation and development to Synaptics,
a firm that also developed the trackpad used by many laptops,
including Apple's PowerBooks.
The first generation iPod featured four buttons (Menu, Play/Pause,
Back, and Forward) arranged around the circumference of the scroll
wheel. Although superseded by nonmechanical "touch" and
"click" wheels, the circular controller design has become a
prominent iPod motif.
in 10 GB and 20 GB capacities, the second generation iPod replaced the
mechanical scroll wheel of the original with a touch-sensitive,
nonmechanical one (manufactured by Synaptics),
termed a "touch wheel". Due to the new Toshiba
hard drives, the 20 GB iPod slightly exceeded its first generation
counterpart in thickness and weight, while the 10 GB model was
slimmer. The second generation iPod came with carrying cases and wired
remotes and it was the first generation that was compatible with
Apple CEO Steve Jobs introduced an "ultrathin" iPod series. Slightly
smaller than their predecessors, they had more distinctively beveled
edges. Over the life of the third generation iPod series, Apple
produced 10 GB, 15 GB, 20 GB, 30 GB, and 40 GB sizes.
iPods use a 30-pin connector called the Dock Connector — longer and
flatter than a FireWire plug. This allows them to fit more easily into
the new iPod Dock which Apple introduced at the same time. The iPod
Dock came bundled with all but the least expensive iPod, and also
third generation iPod featured touch-sensitive buttons located below
the display. The new buttons featured red backlighting (controlled by
the same preference as the screen backlight), allowing easier use in
darkness. The touch-sensitive buttons, which build upon the
touch-sensitive scroll wheel introduced in the second generation iPod,
make the third generation iPod unique in that it has no external
moving parts (other than the hold slider on the top of the unit) and
is the only iPod that doesn't have its buttons surrounding the wheel.
the third generation iPod, Apple stopped shipping separate Mac and
Windows versions of the unit. Instead, all iPods now shipped with
their hard drives formatted for Macintosh use; the included CD-ROM
featured a Windows utility which could reformat them for use with a
Windows PC. These iPods also introduced Hi-Speed USB connectivity
(with a separately sold USB adapter cable. The third generation iPod
could not charge through USB 2.0 however).
purchased through the online Apple Store, the iPod featured custom
engraving: a purchaser could have two lines of text laser engraved on
the back (for an additional charge, although currently free).
past models proved widely popular, after the release of the third
generation model Apple's iPod sales skyrocketed, with a combination of
effective advertising and celebrity endorsement making iPods a fashionable
iPod with an iTrip
July 2004, Apple released the fourth generation iPod. In a new
publicity route, Steve Jobs announced it by becoming the subject of a Newsweek
the most obvious difference from its predecessors, the fourth
generation iPod carries over the click-wheel design introduced on the
iPod mini. Some users criticized the click wheel because it does not
have the backlight that the third generation iPod's buttons had, but
others noted that having the buttons on the compass points largely
removed any need for backlighting. Apple also claimed that updated
software in the new iPod allows it to use the battery more efficiently
and increase battery life to 12 hours. Other minor changes included
the addition of a "Shuffle Songs" option on the top-level
menu to make it more convenient for users. After many requests from
users asking for these improvements to operate on earlier iPods as
well, Apple on February
released a firmware update which brings the new menu items to first
through third generation iPods.
the fourth generation iPod had a monochrome screen and no photo
capabilities, like its predecessors. It came in one of two sizes: 20
GB for $299 and 40 GB for $399 (Apple discontinued the 40 GB model in
February 2005 and began solely selling a monochrome 20 GB version).
The monochrome fourth generation iPod, slightly thinner (about 1 mm
less) than the third generation iPod, introduced the ability to charge
the battery over a USB connection.
iPod photo with color screen
photo / Color iPod
iPod photo (originally named iPod Photo — with a capital P
for "Photo" — but renamed less than a month after its
launch) featured a 220 x 176-pixel, 16-bit color screen capable of
displaying 65,536 colors, and the ability to store and display JPEG, BMP,
images. One millimeter thicker than the standard monochrome
fourth-generation iPod, iPod photo could also play music for up to 15
hours per battery charge. It originally came in 40GB and 60GB
versions, which cost $499 and $599, respectively.
Apple discontinued the 40GB model; which included a FireWire & USB
cable and a dock, introduced a lower-priced 30GB model; which included
only a USB cable and no dock, and dropped the price of the 60GB model.
However, unlike the first iPod photos, the lower-priced 60GB and the
new 30GB models lacked the dock, FireWire cable, carrying case, or AV
cables (accessories valued at approximately $120).
June 28, 2005,
Apple Computer merged the iPod and iPod photo lines,
removing all monochrome models from the main iPod line, giving the
20GB iPod all of the capabilities of the former iPod photo line for
$299, the same price as the previous monochrome version. The price of
the 60GB iPod photo, now known as iPod 60GB, dropped from $449 to
$399, and Apple discontinued the $349 30GB iPod photo model. Apple
Computer — as well as prominent fan sites (such as iLounge)
— continued to refer to this lineup as fourth-generation iPods.
Along with the new lineup, Apple also updated iTunes to version 4.9,
which added podcasting
capabilities to iTunes and to iPod.
manage the photo library on iPod, Mac users use Apple's iPhoto
software, while Windows users can use Adobe Photoshop Album
or use a limited set of features within the free iTunes for Windows
software. New Mac computers are bundled with iPhoto, while Windows
users must either use the limited features within iTunes for Windows
or purchase either of the Adobe products (a limited version of Adobe
Album is available for download for free).
iPod came bundled with a USB cable and an AC adapter. Popular optional
accessories include the dock, a FireWire cable (which owners can use in
lieu of USB), an iPod AV cable (to view photo albums on a TV set),
and an iPod
Camera Connector (to transfer and view images directly from a
digital camera to an iPod).
fourth-generation line of iPods/Color iPods have a glitch that causes
them to pause on their own, despite the hold switch being activated. A
headphone contact switch, in coordination with iPod's auto-pause
feature, is supposed to pause the music playback if the headphones are
disconnected, but incorrectly detects that the headphones have been
removed. This erroneous detection occurs with some third-party
headphones (such as Sennheiser
models), but users have also reported experiencing the problem with
the supplied Apple earbuds. The likely cause for this malfunction is
that a small metal disk on the base of the earphone plugs makes electrical
contact with the metallic back of iPod, tripping the detection
mechanism. To fix this problem, a small piece of cellophane
wrap with a hole in it or a thin, non-conductive washer
may be placed between the headphone jack
and the plug.
U2 signed iPod
U2 Special Edition
Apple released a black-and-red edition of the fourth-generation iPod
called iPod U2 Special Edition. Originally retailing for $349,
it had a black front with a red click wheel (the colors of U2's
latest album, How
to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb), and featured the signatures of U2's
band members engraved on the back. It also included an iTunes
Music Store coupon redeemable for $50 off of the price of The
Complete U2, a "digital boxed set" featuring over
400 tracks of U2 music.
June 28, 2005, at
the same time as the announcement of the merger of the iPod and the
iPod photo lines, Apple added a color screen and photo capabilities to
the iPod U2 Special Edition while dropping the price to $329.
Apple discontinued the iPod U2 Special Edition with the introduction
of the fifth-generation iPod.
U2 iPod was the last Ipod to ship with Firewire
connection cables and firmware, prompting some analysts to speculate
about the future inclusion of Firewire
interfaces on Apple
Potter Collector's iPod
Apple released a limited-edition Harry
Potter fourth-generation 20 GB iPod that featured a laser engraved Hogwarts
crest on the back. This model was superseded on October
with a fifth generation Harry Potter 30 GB Collector's iPod.
The iPod was launched along with the Harry Potter audiobooks
on the iTunes Music Store. The only way to get a Harry Potter
Collector's iPod is to buy it online
along with the complete set of Harry Potter audiobooks, at a combined
price (as of October
of $548 USD.
Apple announced at the "One more thing..."
event, the fifth-generation iPod, which featured the ability to play MPEG-4
video with resolutions of up to 480 x 480 (though many users report it
is actually capable of 640x480) and 320 x 240, respectively (videos
purchased from the iTunes Music Store are limited to 320 x 240.) The
new models are available in 30 and 60 GB
capacities and are priced the same as the previous generation at $299
and $399 USD,
has a 65,536 color (16-bit) screen,
with a 320 x 240 QVGA
display, and is able to display video on an external TV via the AV
which plugs into the headphone minijack and splits into composite
video and audio output connectors with RCA
jacks. It can also display video on an external TV using the iPod AV
or S-video cables with the iPod Universal Dock.
The screen size is now 2.5" (6.35 cm)
diagonally, 0.5" larger than the previous iPod. It is also 30%
thinner than the previous full-size iPod.
reported battery life for the 30 GB is 14 hours and for the 60 GB is
around 20 hours. Watching movies reduces that amount to 2 and 3 hours
respectively. The click
wheel design is the same as the previous generation, but is marginally
smaller than before. The new click wheel is completely flat, unlike
older models where the center button is slightly rounded. Apple has
stopped using the click wheels used in the fourth generation iPod and
iPod mini from their previous supplier, Synaptics Inc of San Jose, CA,
and now uses an in-house solution.
headphone jack has been moved from the center of the top to the right
of the top, while the hold switch has been moved to the left side of
the top. Gone from the fifth-generation iPod is the remote control
accessory port, previously found beside the headphone port, meaning
that accessories such as the Griffin iTrip will no longer work.
Griffin has, however, released a new version of the iTrip for the new
iPod, which mounts to the dock connector on the bottom of the unit.
The fifth-generation iPod no longer supports file transfers via
FireWire, but still supports charging using FireWire.
nano, it comes in two colors, white and black, and it features the
World Clock, Stopwatch, and Screen Lock apps.
fifth-generation iPod also comes with a thin slip case, most likely in
response to many complaints concerning the iPod
nano's easily scratchable surface. Apple has also discontinued the
inclusion of an AC adapter. One must purchase one separately in order
to charge it from the AC.
notable improvements include the reduction of minor audio defects,
such as hard drive noise being heard through the headphone jack, as
well as an increase in recording quality to 44.1 kHz stereo, 22.05 kHz
mono. A third-party addon will still be required in order to record
audio on the iPod, as it was in previous generations.
Potter Collector's iPod
Apple reintroduced the Harry Potter collectible iPod along with the
update of the iPod line. The new Harry Potter iPod retains the laser
engraved Hogwarts crest on back of the device and is sold with the
"complete Harry Potter" (the first 6 books in the Harry
Potter series). The capacity of the iPod was increased to 30 GB
from the previous 20 GB. The price point remains the same as the
of the Xavier Naidoo 30GB Collector's iPod Edition
Naidoo Collector's iPod
Apple introduced the Xavier
Naidoo collectible iPod as a limited edition of 1,000 pieces.
The Xavier Naidoo iPod has a laser engraved singer's star crest on the
back of the device and is sold with 14 songs of the album Telegram
(4 tracks from the previous album are also included). The capacity of
the iPod is 30 GB filled up with selected video material and photos.
Xavier Naidoo Collector's iPod is only available in Europe at one of
the 23 Gravis Stores
in Germany. Apple does not sell this iPod in any of the Apple Stores.
It can also be found on a special promotional website.
The price is € 399 EUR incl. tax.
entered the market for "mini"-form-factor digital audio
players in January 2004, with the introduction of the iPod mini,
competing directly with players like Creative's Zen
Micro and Digital Networks Rio
Carbon. The iPod mini had largely the same feature set as the
full-sized iPod, but lacked support for some third-party accessories.
Its smaller display had one less line than previous models, limiting
the on-screen track identification to title and artist only.
minis used Microdrive
hard drives for storage.
iPod mini was discontinued on September
after Apple announced it was to be replaced by the iPod
nano, which was 62% smaller in size and included a color screen.
Generation iPod mini in Dock with Belt Clip
Apple introduced the first iPod mini. It had 4 GB of storage and a
price of $249 (at the time, only $50 below the 15 GB third-generation
iPod). Critics panned it as too expensive, but it proved to be
overwhelmingly popular, and Apple
Stores had difficulty keeping the model in stock.
mini introduced the popular "click wheel" that was
incorporated into later iPods: the touch-sensitive wheel means that
users can move a finger around it to highlight selections on the
screen, while the unit's Menu, Back, Forward, and Play/Pause buttons
are part of the wheel itself, letting a user press down on part of the
wheel to activate one of those functions. The center button still
acted as a select button.
initially made iPod mini devices available in five colors: silver,
gold, blue, pink, and green. Silver models sold best, followed by blue
ones, while the most unpopular was the gold.
February 2005, the second-generation
iPod mini came on the market with a new 6 GB model at $249 and an
updated 4 GB model priced at $199. Most notably, both models featured
an increased battery life of up to 18 hours. In addition, they
featured richer case colors (though Apple discontinued the gold color)
and other minor aesthetic changes (the color of the lettering on the
click wheel now matched the color of the iPod mini). Also, the second
generation iPod minis did not include the AC
adapter or the FireWire cable bundled with previous models. With
the introduction of the iPod nano, the iPod mini was discontinued.
iPod shuffle with earphones
announced iPod shuffle at Macworld
Expo on January
with the taglines
"Life is random" and "Give chance a chance". iPod
shuffle introduced flash
memory (rather than a hard drive) to iPods for the first time. The
shuffle comes in two models: 512 MB (up to 120, 4-minute songs
encoded at 128 kbit/s)
and 1 GB (up to 240). Unlike other iPod models, iPod shuffle
cannot play Apple
Lossless or AIFF
encoded audio files—possibly due to the iPod shuffle's smaller
processing power. The shuffle has a SigmaTel processor. One review
regards it as having one of the best-sounding audio systems of all the
iPod shuffle has no screen and therefore has limited options for
navigating between music tracks: users can play songs either in the
order set in iTunes or in a random (shuffled) order. Users can set
iTunes to fill iPod shuffle with a random selection from their music
library each time the device connects to the computer. The iPod
shuffle weighs less than one ounce (0.78 oz. or 22 g) and approximates
in size to a pack of chewing
gum (originally, the iPod shuffle website contained a footnote
advising people not to eat the iPod shuffle like gum; it was later
removed, possibly because several users photographed themselves with
their iPod shuffles in their mouths.) Like the rest of the iPod
family, iPod shuffle can operate as a USB mass storage device.
Apple announced the successor to the iPod mini, the iPod nano. Based
memory instead of a hard
drive, the iPod nano is 0.27 inches (6.9 millimeters) thick,
weighs 1.5 ounces (42 grams), and is 62% smaller by volume than its
predecessor. It has a 65,536 color display that can show photographs,
and connects to a computer via USB
2.0. The headphone jack is located on the bottom. It retains the
standard 30-pin dock connector for compatibility with third-party
peripherals. The nano is the first dock connector iPod that cannot
sync to any PC (Windows or Mac) via FireWire
cable, though it can still be charged via a Firewire connection.
iPod nano has several features that would later be included into the
fifth generation iPod. These features were new to the iPod operating
system, including the addition of world clocks, a stopwatch, and a
screenlock option. The world clock allows users to set the time in
cities around the world, and set alarms for each time zone. The clocks
can be set to adjust for Daylight Saving Time. The stopwatch feature
allows users to press Start to start the timer, and the Stop button to
stop. While the timer is on, the Start button changes to a Lap button
that allows the user to time individual laps. The nano saves the
user's stopwatch stats for multiple timing sessions, which is useful
for comparing times.
The screenlock option lets users set a 4 digit
passcode for their iPod, and once the screenlock is activated the only
buttons that can be pressed are the skip forwards and backwards
buttons. The click wheel is used to input the digits to the passcode.
iPod nano is available in white and black, in both 2 GB (US$199) and 4
GB (US$249) configurations. There have been a number of complaints
about the Nano's screen being too soft, resulting in it becoming
easily scratched or even broken if put under any strain.
designed the iPod with an internal lithium
ion battery that users cannot easily replace. Like most
lithium-ion batteries, the iPod battery lasts roughly 500 full
recharge cycles. In other words, the battery will continue to have a
useful life through the equivalent of five hundred complete discharges
and recharges; through time and use, the life of the battery will
generally decrease until eventually it is not able to power the iPod
for more than a few minutes. Apple has published guidelines
on its web site for maximizing the life of an iPod battery.
battery in all iPod models cannot be removed or replaced by the user
without levering the unit open. This is unusually difficult for a
consumer device, but at least half a dozen well-known rivals to the
iPod have a similarly enclosed battery. Compounding this problem,
Apple would not replace worn-out batteries either. The official policy
was that the customer should buy a refurbished replacement iPod, at a
cost almost equivalent to a brand new iPod.
situation led to a small market for third-party battery replacement
kits. On November
Apple quietly announced a battery replacement program that initially
(now $59), and one week later offered users the option to extend the
warranty of their iPods for $59.
a short film produced by iPod owners The Neistat Brothers hit the
internet. The movie, apparently made before the change in policy,
expressed anger because the battery on their early model iPod had
failed after eighteen months and Apple refused to replace it. The
movie depicted the Brothers vandalizing
Apple ads in the New
York City area with graffiti proclaiming that "iPod's
unreplaceable battery lasts only 18 months."
The movie was widely linked and viewed, with much of the commentary
failing to mention Apple's recent change in policy. Some iPod users
also defended Apple by pointing out that their iPods had lasted longer
than 18 months, while other viewers suggested that the brothers had
attacked Apple solely for the sake of publicity.
a response to the battery problem, multiple 3rd parties
have appeared that are selling iPod battery replacement kits for one
third of the price that Apple charges customers for a battery
replacement. These batteries often contain more capacity than the
standard Apple batteries.
big question now is if the 5th Generation iPod battery can be replaced
by users as the orthers generations. Some reviews in the
arstechnica.com showed that the battery in iPod nano is soldered in
the mainboard and in the iPod video its more dificult to be removable
and "It's actually affixed to the metal backplate and sits above
its own power management circuitry and right next the headphone port
and its driver circuitry".
GB third generation iPod.
to be confused with "Ipod your Car" which allows car
integration on a personal car, ipod Car interation allows you to
connect your ipod to your car, and listen to premade car playlists for
your car, or your entire library; in your car speakers. I some cars,
you can control your ipod music through your steering wheel. This
feature is only availible in certain cars:
Z4, X3, X5 - Mercedes-Benz: C-Class, CLK, CLS, E-Class, SLK, M-Class,
R-Class - Mini: Cooper, Cooper S - Scion: xA, xB, tC - Volvo: S40,
S60, S80, V50, V70, XC70, XC90
feature will also be available in other cars soon: Acura, Audi,
Ferrari, Honda, Nissan, and Volkswagen.
2006, this feature will also be availible in other foreign cars
(outside US): Japan: Nissan, Mazda, Daihatsu, BMW, MINI, smart, and
Computer endorses only one official method for synchronizing with the
iPod: iTunes. But several projects addressed synchronization of the
iPod with other players, most notably the ml_iPod
plugin for Winamp,
that allows users to manage their iPod content through Winamp, and
even allows functionality not available through iTunes, such as the
copying of music off the iPod.
Music Store (iTMS) is an online music store run by Apple and built
into iTunes. Advertised that any song was 99 cents, the music bought
from it can be downloaded onto the iPod and the store has become the
dominant online music service, helping the sale of iPods.
encrypts the AAC
audio files using the controversial FairPlay digital
rights management (DRM) system, so that only authorized computers
(up to five) and unlimited iPods can play them. However, the files can
also be burned to CD, at which time those DRM restrictions are
portable music player other than the iPod can play the DRM-enabled
files sold on the iTMS, and the iPod cannot play files protected with
other DRM technologies, such as Microsoft's DRM format or
RealNetwork's Helix-DRM system. Microsoft and RealNetworks have
accused Apple of using iPod, the iTunes Music Store, and FairPlay to
lock iPod users into using iTunes exclusively (and vice versa),
creating a vertical
monopoly. For a short time in 2004, RealNetworks
had advertised that tracks purchased from their RealPlayer Music Store
could be played on an iPod through the use of their Harmony
technology; however, an iPod update released at the time of the iPod
photo launch disabled files created by Harmony. Yet Realnetworks has
continued to update the technology allowing iPod owners to download
purchased music from RealNetworks music store.
Jobs has stated "We would like to break even (or) make a
little bit of money (on the iTunes Music Store) but it's not a money
maker." The role of the iTMS is not to sell songs, but rather to
promote the sale of iPods by offering owners a convenient service for
music. Aside from the controversial iPod-exclusive AAC format of audio
files, SonyBMG and Warner Music who had initially signed on with Apple
have lately complained that they have been undercharged for the value
of their songs due to iTMS's flat fee. Arguing that the cheap songs
from iTMS have contributed significantly to the iPods' great success,
record labels are also seeking a share of profits from the iPod
division itself and they hope to accomplish this by putting pressure
of Apple to differentiate between "hot singles" and
"golden oldies". Jobs responded by accusing the record
industry of being greedy.
Harry Potter 30GB Collector's iPod
has created a large and growing aftermarket accessory industry; in the
2005 Macworld keynote, Steve Jobs referred to it as "the iPod
economy." The large availability of these aftermarket products
may be one of the reasons that the iPod is so popular among consumers.
The accessory industry also does well to satisfy buyers who want an
iPod but also want the additional practical features found in
audio players such as memory-card readers, FM
tuners, and voice recording. Some of the more exotic accessories
include a waterproof case and a flashlight/laser-pointer. Although
designed for the original iPod, many third-party add-ons also worked
well with the iPod mini, although this may not necessarily hold for
the mini's successor, the iPod nano.
of the accessories, like the speaker systems made by Bose
and the in-car audio interfaces for BMW,
make use of the docking connectors found at the bottom of the iPod and
have the user dock the unit in the device. Several other carmakers
such as Audi
plan to make iPod connections available in certain models in 2006,
while Toyota, Citroen and Peugeot have the option of iPod connectivity
with their Aygo, C1 and 107. These connectors provide control and
information as well as a path for the sound signal and power to run
the iPod or accessory.
replacement kits from third-party offerings were credited with
compelling Apple to offer its own battery replacement policy
(previously, Apple suggested that owners of dead batteries should buy
a new/refurbished iPod). Several third parties have appeared that are
selling iPod battery replacement kits for one third of the price that
Apple charges customers for a battery replacement, while these
batteries often contain more capacity than the standard Apple
software tools supporting iPod include:
an audio player for KDE
that has integrated iPod support.
an free audio player for Windows that can interact with iPod with
the optional installation of the foo_pod
a set of Perl applications for Unix-like
systems. It uses its own XML database so users can easily edit
specific tags on songs, or create playlists, then can re-compile
iTunesDB so the iPod can use the database
an iPod-targeted GTK+-based
iPod manager for systems using the GTK+ toolkit.
Project, a Linux based OS made for the iPod. It currently offers
support for the first, second, and third generation iPods. While
it may work for the other generation iPods, including the mini, it
is not officially supported.
is a Windows program which allows a user to edit the graphics,
fonts, and strings of any generation of iPod.
a GNOME-based iTunes clone.
a popular audio player under Windows that supports iPods with the
installation of the open-source
iPod Converter 0.91, a free program that allows a user to
convert regular PC video files (avi, mpeg, etc) in Windows into an
iPod video compatible format.
Offers many variations in color of their JAVOSkin line for most
versions of iPods. JAVOSkin is a flexible skin case made out of
silicon material. Also known for their adaptation of PDA screen
protectors to iPods.
Technology makes several iPod accessories, such as the iTrip, iBeam
makes many iPod accessories, such as the Battery Pack, TuneDok,
TunePower, TuneFM, TuneTalk, Media Reader, and scores of other
wide variety of other third-party products also exists and more
appear every day, from voice recorders through games and other
iPod-based software to various connection devices and adapters.
released the first iPod automobile interface to come from an
The interface allowed drivers of late-model BMW vehicles to
control their iPod through the built-in steering wheel controls
and the radio head unit buttons. The iPod attached to a cable
harness in the car's glove
compartment and allowed the driver to create up to five unique
"BMW playlists" that were displayed through the
vehicle's radio head unit.
announced at Macworld Expo in January 2005 that Mercedes-Benz
USA, Volvo, Nissan, Alfa
Romeo and Ferrari
would offer similar systems.
announced in September
2005 that they now have deals with Acura, Audi, Honda
to integrate iPod into their car stereos during the year. With
these deals Apple now has 15 car companies worldwide planning to
offer iPod integration. More than thirty percent of the cars in
the United States now include iPod support. Honda will be the
first to include text-to-speech capabilities that allow drivers to
search for playlists, artist and album names or genre.
"special event," Apple CEO Steve Jobs announced that
"as of the end of last quarter, that's the end of June 2005,
Apple had sold almost 22 million iPods."
magazine reported on 27
that Apple had sold over 15 million iPods, including 5.3 million in
the first quarter of that year.
The iPod currently dominates the digital audio player market in the
US, frequently topping best-seller lists.
According to the latest financial statements, iPod's market share
accounts for 74% in the US in July 2005. Within one year from January
2004 to January 2005, its US market share tremendously increased by
34% from 31% to 65%. This success was especially based on the
introduction of the iPod mini. Therefore, Apple succeeded in chipping
away at the mainstream Flash player market in the US. That is why
Flash players at the beginning of 2005 account for less than half the
US market share they did in 2004. Their market share decreased from
62% in January 2004 to 29% in January 2005.
In other countries, the iPod market share is significantly lower,
mostly due to high import taxes and less ubiquitous marketing, so
flash memory players, or hard disk based players from competitors like
its fourth quarter results of 2005, Apple reported earnings of $430
million — its highest revenue for Q4 in the company's history.
Apple shipped 6.16 million iPods during the quarter that ended on June
a 616% increase over the year-ago quarter. Most recently, Apple
shipped 6.45 million iPods during the quarter that ended on September
a 220% increase over the year-ago quarter.
8, 2004, Hewlett-Packard
announced that they would license the iPod from Apple to create an
HP-branded digital audio player based on the iPod. The HP models were
the same as the Apple iPod except for the inclusion of an
"HP" logo on the back under the Apple logo and "iPod"
label They were sold as the "Apple
iPod + hp". Retailers of this model included (among others)
the retail giant Wal-Mart,
which included a disclaimer explaining that it would not work with its
own online music service. In July of 2005, HP reversed its decision
and announced they would stop reselling the iPod by September 2005,
were projected to be depleted. Sales by Hewlett-Packard made up 5% of
all iPod sales.
sales according to Apple's yearly financial results:
sales according to Apple's quarterly financial results:
Sales according to Apple
has promoted the iPod and iTunes brands in several successful
first iPod ad, featuring the tagline "A thousand songs, in
your pocket" was launched alongside iPod in November 2001.
The ad can be viewed on Apple's web site.
April 2003, Apple introduced a new ad campaign in conjunction with
the launch of the iTunes
Music Store. The ads featured informally dressed persons
wearing iPods and giving a
cappella renditions of popular songs, accompanied by
guitar, and other performances. The commercials featured a
wide range of music, including The
Got Back, Pink's
There You Go, and Eminem's
October 2003, Apple changed their TV ads to align with their print
ad campaign, featuring people
in silhouette against a solid color background, dancing to
music on prominently featured iPods and iPod headphones. These
commercials featured popular songs, such as The
Vines' Ride, The
Caesars' Jerk it Out, Gorillaz'
Good Inc., Steriogram's "Walkie-Talkie Man," Jet's
Are You Gonna Be My Girl, N.E.R.D.'s
Rock Star (Jason Nevin's Mix), Franz
Ferdinand's Take Me Out, Daft
Punk's Technologic, and many more. To commemorate the
launch of the U2 iPod, Apple released an ad featuring the music video of Vertigo
(changed to characteristic iPod silhouettes).
February 1, 2004, during the Super Bowl, Pepsi
and Apple kicked off their promotional deal to include a free
iTunes download under the caps of Pepsi bottled soda. Each bottle
had a 1:3 chance of winning a free download. In conjunction, Pepsi
also launched ads featuring young teenagers who had been accused
of unauthorized filesharing by the RIAA,
who go on to say they will still download music for free thanks to
the Pepsi iTunes Giveaway. The giveaway lasted for two months and
included 100 million codes under the caps of Pepsi drinks, of
which only 5 million were redeemed by its end.
Apple introduced an ad for the iPod fifth generation featuring U2
as well as Eminem's
Jobs — CEO of Apple
Rubinstein — Apple Senior Vice President of the iPod
Ive — Apple Vice President of Industrial Design
Fadell — Apple Vice President of iPod Engineering
Cleary — iPod Product Manager
Ng — Director of iPod Product Marketing
cola available next year. Profits from refreshing Solar
Cola sales go toward the build of Solar Navigator.
forget to order your Solar Cola in time for next year's launch.
short piece tells you what you need to know about what an iPod (or
iPod mini) is and does, and what it isn’t and doesn’t do. It
explains which different types of iPod are available at the time of
writing, and shows you how to distinguish among them and how to
differentiate them from the iPod mini. Finally, it suggests how to
choose the iPod that will best suit your needs.
“iPod or iPod mini” every sentence is a little awkward, so in this
article we use the term iPod to cover all iPods, including the
iPod mini. Where the iPod mini behaves differently, or there’s
something you need to think about if you plan to use an iPod mini
rather than a regular iPod, we’ll tell you.
Is an iPod? What Is an iPod Mini?
iPod—the regular, full-size iPod—is a portable music player with a
huge capacity, a rechargeable battery good for eight to ten hours of
playback, and easy-to-use controls. An iPod mini is a smaller and
cuter version with more modest capacity. Your iPod or iPod mini
connects to your Mac or PC via a FireWire cable or USB cable that
enables you to transfer large quantities of song files and other files
quickly to the player.
around the type of hard drive used in small laptop computers, a
regular iPod doubles as a contact database, calendar, and note board,
enabling you to carry around not only all your music but also your
vital information. You can also put other textual information on your
iPod so you can carry that information with you and view it on the
iPod’s screen. With extra hardware, you can extend your iPod’s
capabilities even further. For example, with a custom microphone, you
can record audio directly onto it. With a custom media reader, you can
store your digital photos on your iPod’s hard disk without using a
computer. This capability can make your iPod a great travel companion
for your digital camera—especially a camera that takes
iPod mini is built around the type of hard drive used in the tiniest
laptop computers and some consumer electronics, such as cell phones
that have swallowed a PDA and decided that extra storage would improve
their digestion. The iPod mini has most of the capabilities of the
regular iPod, but at the time of writing, it doesn’t support
recording audio or downloading digital photos from third-party
Potter 20GB Collector's iPod
music, contacts, calendar, notes, and other text aren’t enough for
you, you can also use your iPod as an external hard disk for your Mac
or PC. Your iPod provides an easy and convenient means of backing up
your data, storing files, and transporting files from one computer to
another. And because your iPod is ultra-portable, you can take those
files with you wherever you go, which can be great for school, work,
and even play. The iPod mini scores even higher on portability than
the regular iPod, but because its capacity is so much lower, it’s
not so great for carrying around huge quantities of files.
iPod supports various audio formats, including Advanced Audio Coding (AAC),
MP3 (including Audible.com’s Audible files), WAV, and AIFF. Although
the iPod doesn’t support other formats—such as Microsoft’s
Windows Media Audio (WMA), RealNetworks’ RealAudio, or the
open-source audio format Ogg Vorbis—at this writing, you can convert
audio files in those formats to AAC, MP3, or another supported format
easily enough so that you can put those files on your iPod.
iPod contains a relatively small operating system (OS) that lets it
function on its own—for example, for playing back music, displaying
contact information, and so on. The OS also lets your iPod know when
it’s been connected to a computer, at which point the OS hands over
control to the computer so you can manage it from there.
iPod is designed to communicate seamlessly with iTunes, which runs on
both the Mac and Windows. If you prefer, you can use your iPod with
other software as well on either operating system. If you use your
iPod with iTunes, you can buy music from the iTunes Music Store,
download it to your Mac or PC, and play it either on your computer or
much for what your iPod does and what it consists of. We now look at some of the things your iPod doesn’t do and what
its limitations are. Some may seem obvious, but if you’re in the
market for an iPod, you’ll benefit from being clear on all these
points right now.
Can’t Enter (Much) Information onto Your iPod Directly
of the box, your iPod is strictly a play-and-display device: you
can’t enter information onto it directly. All the information your
iPod contains must come from a computer (a Mac or a PC) across a
FireWire cable or USB cable.
changes if you buy a hardware accessory that’s designed to work with
the iPod. (The accessory needs to be specifically designed to work
with the iPod, otherwise the iPod won’t recognize it.) You can then
input certain types of data—for example, you can record audio or
import photos from a digital camera—without connecting your iPod to
a computer. (The iPod mini can’t handle these types of input at the
time of writing.) iPod
fans and pundits have long predicted an iPod keyboard that will let
you type text onto your iPod, but Apple hasn’t obliged yet. At this
writing, dictating voice memos is as good as text entry gets.
iPod Isn’t the Smallest or Most Skip-Proof Player in Town
your iPod is based around a hard drive, it’s far larger than the
smallest digital audio players around. Some of the smallest players
are around the size of a cigarette lighter, while a regular iPod is
more the size of a packet of cigarettes, and an iPod mini is the size
of a stack of credit cards.
iPod is also less resistant to skips than solid-state players that
store data on flash memory rather than on a hard disk. But as you’ll
see in the section “What You Might Want to Know About Your iPod’s
Internals,” in Chapter 13, Apple has done some clever engineering to
reduce skipping caused by the hard drive being knocked around. That
said, if you need a super-lightweight, supertough, or wholly
skip-proof digital audio player, you should probably look beyond the
solution is to use your iPod for most of your music and buy an
inexpensive, low-capacity digital audio player for your higher-energy
or higher-impact pursuits. That way, if you wipe out while trying to
set a new speed record on your street luge, you won’t need to buy a
new iPod—just a titanium ultraportable player, a pair of Kevlar
shorts, and a pack of Moleskin.
iPod Supports Only AAC, MP3, WAV, and AIFF Audio Formats
the time of this writing, your iPod supports only a limited range of
audio formats: AAC, MP3 (including Audible.com’s AA format), WAV,
and AIFF. Your iPod doesn’t support major formats such as the
Media Audio (WMA), Microsoft’s proprietary format. WMA has
built-in digital rights management (DRM) capabilities and is used
by several of the largest online music stores (such as Napster
the RealNetworks format in which much audio is streamed across the
Internet and other networks.
Vorbis, the new open-source audio format intended to provide
royalty-free competition to MP3.
you can convert audio files from one format to another, and because
the MP3 format is very widely used, this limitation isn’t too
painful. But if your entire music library is in, say, WMA or Ogg
format, you’ll have to do some work before you can use it on your
iPod. Worse, if your songs are in another compressed format, you’ll
lose some audio quality when you convert them to AAC or MP3.
of March 2004, Apple had released three generations of regular iPods
and one generation of the iPod mini:
first generation of regular iPods consisted of 5GB and 10GB iPods
and worked only with the Mac, to which they connected directly via
FireWire. iPod enthusiasts developed ways of making the iPods work
with Windows and Linux as well.
second generation of regular iPods consisted of 5GB, 10GB, and
20GB iPods. These iPods came in separate versions for the Mac and
for Windows (Linux users were still out of luck), but still
connected to the Mac or PC directly via FireWire. The 10GB and
20GB models included a wired remote control and a carrying case.
Second-generation Mac iPods were sometimes called MiPods, and Windows
iPods were sometimes called WiPods. You could convert an iPod from
MiPod to WiPod, and vice versa, if necessary, but because doing so
reformatted the iPod’s hard disk, it wasn’t a great idea even at
the best of times.
third generation of regular iPods started with 10GB, 15GB, and
30GB iPods in Spring 2003, then progressed to 20GB and 40GB iPods
in September 2003. Third-generation iPods have a slimmer case and
sleeker look than first-generation and second-generation iPods,
and they work with both the Mac and Windows straight out of the
box. Most models include a new iPod Dock for connecting the iPod
to the Mac or PC via FireWire, a wired remote control, and a
carrying case. You can also connect third-generation iPods to a PC
via USB if you buy a custom cable for doing so.
iPod mini, released in February 2004, has a 4GB capacity, is
smaller than the regular iPods in all three dimensions, is lighter
and cuter, and comes in different colors.
you can see from that list, there’s a fair amount of overlap,
including three different 10GB iPods and two different 20GB iPods. And
by the time you read this, Apple may well have released
higher-capacity third-generation iPods or a fourth-or subsequent
generation, complicating matters even further.
can tell the capacity of any regular iPod easily, because it’s
engraved on the back—for example, “10GB” or “40GB.” (The
first generation of iPod mini has a 4GB capacity, but it’s not
written on the player.) You can also tell easily whether a regular
iPod is third-generation or not:
third-generation iPods are more streamlined and have the four
control buttons (Previous, Menu, Play/Pause, and Next) arranged in
a backlit line under the screen, as shown on the right in Figure
first-and second-generation iPods are squarer and have the four
control buttons arranged around the scroll wheel, as shown on the
left in Figure 1-1.
third-generation iPods are shallower in depth than the first-and
third-generation iPods have a slimmer Hold switch than the earlier
third-generation iPods have a plain headphone socket rather than a
headphone socket with an extra ring of contacts for the remote
first-and second-generation iPods have a FireWire socket on the
top, while the third-generation iPods don’t.
differences on the bottom is even clearer: third-generation iPods have
a socket for a Dock connector, while earlier iPods have nothing. Distinguishing
first-generation iPods from second-generation iPods requires a closer
look. The first-generation iPods have no cover on their FireWire port,
while the second-generation iPods’ This illustration shows how to
tell third-generation iPods from earlier generations. The first-and
second-generation iPods have a squared look, with the four control
buttons arranged around the scroll wheel. The third-generation iPods
have a sleeker look and the four control buttons arranged under the
top of third-generation iPods is substantially different from the top
of earlier iPods.
port is covered with a flexible plastic plug. Beyond that, try using
the scroll wheel: in the first-generation iPods, it is mechanical,
while in the second-generation iPods, it uses a sensor (and so
doesn’t move to the touch).
and cosmetic differences aside, the main differences among the various
models have been in their system
software. As usual with any product that involves software, Apple
has patched holes and fixed bugs in the iPod’s operating
system, the connector to iTunes, and iTunes itself.
line: third-generation iPods have a socket for a Dock connector;
earlier iPods don’t.
Apple has also gradually added a slew of features to the first- and
second-generation iPods via software
updates. These are the major features that Apple has added:
storage that lets you synchronize your contacts with your iPod and
view them on the screen
graphical equalizer that you can use for changing the sound of the
music to suit your tastes
Shuffle feature that lets you shuffle playback not only by songs
but also by albums
feature called scrubbing that lets you wind forward or
backward through the song you’re playing so you can find the
part you want to hear
Calendar application that can synchronize with calendaring
software (such as iCal on the Mac) to transfer your calendar
information to your iPod
your iPod is not as new as it might be, check if you can update its OS
with any features that Apple has released more recently. See the
section “Keep Your iPod’s Operating System Up to Date,” in
Chapter 13, for details of how to download and install updates.
Your iPod's Capacity Appears to be Less than Advertised
gigabytes is a huge amount of music—around ten thousand four-minute
songs. Even four gigabytes can hold a thousand songs, enough to keep
you quiet (if that’s the word) for nearly three days of solid
listening. But unfortunately, you don’t actually get the amount of
hard disk space that’s written on the iPod.
are two reasons for this. The first (and eminently forgivable) reason
is that you lose some hard-disk space to the iPod’s OS and the file
allocation table that records which file is stored where on the disk.
This happens on all hard disks that contain operating systems, and
costs you only a few megabytes.
second (and much less forgivable) reason is that the hard-drive
capacities on iPods are measured in “marketing gigabytes” rather
than in real gigabytes. A real gigabyte is 1024 megabytes; a megabyte
is 1024 kilobytes; and a kilobyte is 1024 bytes. That makes
1,073,741,824 bytes (1024 × 1024 × 1024 bytes) in a real gigabyte.
By contrast, a marketing gigabyte has a flat billion bytes (1000 ×
1000 × 1000 bytes)—a difference of 7.4 percent.
your iPod will actually hold 7.4 percent less data than its listed
drive size suggests (and minus a bit more for the OS and file
allocation table). You can see why marketing folks choose to use
marketing megabytes and gigabytes rather than real megabytes and
gigabytes—the numbers are more impressive. But customers tend to be
disappointed (to say the least) when they discover that the real
capacity of a device is substantially less than the device’s
packaging and literature promised.
all hard-drive manufacturers give capacities in marketing gigabytes,
which has conferred herd immunity on them so far. At this writing, a
class-action lawsuit about this double-system of measurements is in
the works, and might force manufacturers to state the capacity less
ambiguously. A previous class-action lawsuit forced monitor
manufacturers to state the viewable screen size of cathode-ray tube
monitors as well as the size of the screen itself (part of which is
cut off by the monitor bezel). This is why you see monitor ads that
state “15" monitor, 13.7" visible”; before the lawsuit,
the ads simply claimed “15" monitor.”
third-generation iPods provide substantial improvements in hardware,
especially in capacity. But they, and the iPod
mini, also offer substantial improvements to their software, including
iPods and the iPod mini can play back songs encoded with AAC, a
high-quality compression format. See “What Is AAC? Should You
can set your iPod to start playing music (or beeps, if you prefer)
at a particular time.
the third-generation iPods and the iPod mini, you can create a
temporary playlist by using the On-The-Go playlist. This is a
great improvement over having to create all your playlists on your
can set the third-generation iPods and the iPod mini to display
the time in the title bar.
can assign ratings (from one star to five stars) to songs from the
iPod or the iPod mini, whereas before you could assign ratings
only from iTunes.
and customizable menus -The
third-generation iPods and the iPod mini feature some menu changes
designed to put the items you need closer to your fingertips. For
example, the Backlight item now appears on the main menu, so you
can turn on the backlight more easily. Better yet, you can
customize the main menu by choosing which items (from a preset
list) appear on it.
third-generation iPods and the iPod mini can display text notes,
so you no longer have to clutter up your Contacts folder with
notes disguised as vCards.
third-generation iPods and the iPod mini also offer three new
games: Music Quiz, in which your iPod challenges you to identify
snippets of songs against the clock; Parachute, an action game in
which you try to shoot down helicopters and parachutists before
they overwhelm you; and Solitaire, a one-player card game.
You’ll find these games under Extras.
accommodate your music library and such other files as you want to
carry with you, you’ll probably want to buy the highest-capacity,
latest-generation iPod you can afford. But if you don’t need the
iPod Dock, and if it’s still the first half of 2004, and if you can
pick up a second-generation 20GB iPod at a knockdown price, you might
choose to do so. First-generation iPods are now too long in the tooth
to be a sensible buy. (This is because rechargeable batteries
gradually lose their capacity after they’re manufactured, even if
they’re not being used.) By the second half of 2004, the same will
apply to second-generation iPods as well.
you decide to buy a second-generation iPod, you’ll need to choose
between a Mac
iPod and a Windows iPod. As mentioned earlier, you can convert an iPod between Mac and
Windows, but it’s better to get the right format from the start.
(See the section “Move Your iPod from Mac to Windows—and Back,”
in Chapter 16, for details on how to convert an iPod from one format
you want the smallest and cutest high-capacity player, or if you want
your iPod in a color other than white, you’re looking at the iPod
mini. The iPod mini is great for smaller music libraries, or for
carrying only the newest or most exciting songs in your colossal
library with you, but its lower capacity makes it poor value alongside
the regular iPod.
the table below to see how much music (guide only) you can fit onto the iPod mini and the
different models of regular iPod at widely used compression ratios for
music. For spoken audio (such as audio books, plays, or talk radio),
you can use lower compression ratios (such as 64 Kbps or even 32 Kbps)
and still get acceptable sound with much smaller file sizes. The table
assumes a “song” to be about four minutes long and rounds the
figures to the nearest sensible point. The table doesn’t show less
widely used compression ratios such as 224 Kbps or 256 Kbps. (For 256
Kbps, halve the 128 Kbps numbers.)
The iPod refers to tracks as “songs,” so this book does the same.
Even if the tracks you’re listening to aren’t music, the iPod
considers them to be songs. Similarly, the iPod and this book refer to
“artists” rather than “singers,” “bands,” or other terms.
decide which model to buy, you’ll probably want to ask yourself the
I want an iPod mini, or would a regular iPod be a better choice?
much music do I want to put on my iPod, and at what quality?
(Usually the answer to the first part of the question is “as
much music as possible,” and the answer to the second part is
“high enough quality that it sounds great on my headphones and
iPod Capacities at Widely Used Compression Ratios
other items do I want to put on my iPod, and how much space will
I need a case, iPod Dock, and remote
control for my iPod? (Apple tends to offer the least expensive
regular iPod without these items. If you buy these items
separately, you’ll end up spending more than if you’d bought
the next model up, which not only includes the accessories but
also has a higher capacity.)
much can I afford to spend?
you’ve set your heart on an iPod mini, buy one. Otherwise, if money
is no object, buy the highest-capacity iPod available: between your
music and the other items you’ll probably want to use the iPod for,
you’ll very likely take up most of its capacity soon enough. But if
money is tight, you may need to sacrifice iPod capacity for solvency.
Never mind—you may be richer next year, or at least iPod prices will
probably have come down.