The World Solar Navigation Challenge W.S.N.C.
SOLAR NAVIGATOR - Amsterdam 2015
The World Electric Navigation Challenge
HISWA Amsterdam boat show
The HISWA - Amsterdam Boat Show takes place annually at the Amsterdam RAI, displaying boats in all shapes, sizes and price brackets and attracting around 77,000 visitors.
The event features everything that boat enthusiasts could possibly wish for, including clothing, accessories, restored boats and information on building boats, as well as offering holiday ideas. Around 400 exhibitors.
Amsterdam is the capital, and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the south of the province North Holland. The name Amsterdam literally means Amstel dam. The city was founded in the late 12th century as a small fishing village. The historical centre is renowned for its concentric canals, largely built during the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th century. The city has been compared with Venice. Beyond the canals, the similarities have a basis in the cities' long histories of overseas trading, translating in openness and tolerance.
As of January 1, 2006, the city of Amsterdam has a population of 743,027 inhabitants and is by population size the largest city in the Netherlands. The urban area has a population of 1,021,870 inhabitants and is part of the conglomerate metropolitan area Randstad, with a population of 6,659,300 inhabitants.
The first occurrence of Amsterdam is Latin The certificate of count Floris V in 1275: homines manentes apud Amestelledamme (English: people living near
Amestelledamme). The meaning of Amestelledamme is dam or dyke of the
Amstel, where the name of the river Amstel can be dissected into ame meaning 'water' and stelle meaning 'dry ground'. The r from the current name was first used in 1282: Amestelredamme. In 1327, count William III used the form Aemsterdam, which best resembles the modern form
The 18th and early 19th centuries saw a decline in Amsterdam's prosperity. The wars of the Dutch Republic with England (see Anglo-Dutch Wars) and France took their toll on Amsterdam. During the Napoleonic Wars, Amsterdam's fortunes reached their lowest point. However, with the establishment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, things slowly began to improve. In Amsterdam new developments were started by people like city planner Samuel Sarphati, who found their inspiration in Paris.
The end of the 19th century is sometimes called Amsterdam's second Golden Age. New museums, a train station, and the Concertgebouw were built. At this time the Industrial Revolution reached Amsterdam. The Amsterdam-Rhine Canal was dug to give Amsterdam a direct connection to the Rhine, and the North Sea Canal to give the port a shorter connection to the North Sea. Both projects improved communication with the rest of Europe and the world dramatically. Joseph Conrad gives a brief description of Amsterdam, seen from the sea at this period, in The Mirror of the Sea (1906). In 1924 the Roman Catholic Church of the Netherlands hosted the International Eucharistic Congress in Amsterdam, and numerous Catholic prelates visited the city, where numerous festivities were held in churches and stadiums; Catholic processions on the public streets however were still forbidden under law at the time.
In 2005, 965,000 people visited the museum adjoining #263 Prinsengracht, better known as the
Anne Frank House.
Shortly before the World War I the city began expanding and new suburbs were built. During the war, the Netherlands remained neutral. Amsterdam suffered a food shortage, and heating fuel became scarce. The shortages sparked riots in which several people were killed.
As all Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is governed by a mayor, aldermen, and the municipal council. However, unlike most other Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is subdivided into fifteen stadsdelen (boroughs), a system that was implemented in the 1980s to improve local governance. The stadsdelen are responsible for many activities that previously had been run by the central city. Fourteen of these have their own council, chosen by a popular election. The fifteenth, Westpoort, covers the harbour of Amsterdam, has very few inhabitants, and is governed by the central municipal council. Local decisions are made at borough level, and only affairs pertaining to the whole city, such as major infrastructure projects, are handled by the central city council.
The present version of the Dutch constitution mentions "Amsterdam" and "capital" only in one place, chapter 2, article 32: The king's confirmation by oath and his coronation take place in "the capital Amsterdam" ("de hoofdstad Amsterdam"). Previous versions of the constitution spoke of "the city of Amsterdam" ("de stad Amsterdam"), without mention of capital. In any case, the seat of the government, parliament and supreme court of the Netherlands is (and always has been, with the exception of a brief period between 1808 and 1810) located at The Hague. Foreign embassies too are in The Hague. Although capital of the country, Amsterdam is not the capital of the province in which it is located, North Holland, whose capital is located at Haarlem.
Coat of arms
The coat of arms of Amsterdam is composed of several historical elements. First and centre are three St Andrew's crosses, aligned in a vertical band on the city's shield. Historians believe they represent the three dangers which have traditionally plagued the city: flood, fire, and pestilence. Second is the Imperial Crown of Austria, awarded to the city in 1489 by Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, out of gratitude for services and loans. His crown was a sign of imperial protection and it acted as a seal of approval for Amsterdam's merchants abroad. The Westertoren (tower of the Westerkerk) is topped by the selfsame imperial crown. The lions date from the 16th century, when the city was part of one of the first republics in the world, the Republic Of The Seven Provinces. Last came the city's official motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig ("Valiant, Determined, Compassionate"), bestowed on the city by Wilhelmina van Oranje Nassau, Queen Wilhelmina of The Royal Kingdom of The Netherlands in 1947, in recognition of the city's bravery during World War II. The current design of the flag of Amsterdam is based on the coat of arms.
17th century planning and construction of the canals
Much of the Amsterdam canal system is the successful outcome of city planning. In the early part of the 17th century, with immigration at a height, a comprehensive plan was put together, calling for four main, concentric half-circles of canals with their ends resting on de IJ bay: three canals mostly for residential development
(Herengracht or ‘’Lords Canal’’; Keizersgracht or ‘’Emperors Canal’’; and Prinsengracht or ‘’Princes Canal’’), and a fourth, outer canal, the present
Nassau/Stadhouderskade, for purposes of defense and water management. The plan also envisaged interconnecting canals along radii; a set of parallel canals in the Jordaan quarter (primarily for the transportation of goods, for example, beer); the conversion of an existing, inner perimeter canal
(Singel) from a defensive purpose to residential and commercial development; and more than one hundred bridges. The defensive purpose of the
Nassau/Stadhouderskade was served by moat and earthen dikes, with gates at transit points but otherwise no masonry
City government - The 15 boroughs of Amsterdam
Greater Amsterdam area
The Greater Amsterdam area (Dutch: Stadsgewest Amsterdam) consists of the urban area, its satellite cities, and the intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to Amsterdam. This includes the municipalities Amsterdam, Aalsmeer, Abcoude, Almere, Amstelveen, Diemen, Graft-De Rijp, Haarlemmermeer, Landsmeer, Oostzaan, Purmerend, Wormerveer, Beemster, Edam-Volendam, Waterland, Zaanstad and Zeevang. The total size of the greater area is 1,896.97 km², whereof 1,447.36 km² is land. As of January 1, 2006 the metropolitan area has a population of 2,191,259 inhabitants. Amsterdam is part of the conglomerate metropolitan area Randstad, with a total population of 6,659,300 inhabitants.
New development on the southern IJ-embankmentAmsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands and one of the most important cities in Europe in which to do business. Many large Dutch corporations and banks have their headquarters in Amsterdam, including ABN Amro, Akzo Nobel, Heineken International, ING Group, Ahold, Delta Lloyd Group and Philips. KPMG International's global headquarters is located in nearby Amstelveen, as is the European headquarters of Cisco Systems.
Though many subsidiaries are located along the old canals, more and more companies decide to move to a newly built office tower outside the city centre. The South Axis (Dutch: Zuidas) is increasingly a banking area, and is intended to become the new business-face of the Netherlands. There the recently expanded World trade centre also has its location.
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (AEX) is part of Euronext, and is the world's oldest stock exchange. It still is one of the most important in Europe.
Demographic evolution of Amsterdam between 1300 and 2006
In the 16th and 17th century non-Dutch immigrants to Amsterdam were mostly Huguenots, Flemings, Sephardi Jews and Westphalians. Hugenots came after 1685's Edict of Fontainebleau, while the Flemish Protestants came during the Eighty Years' War. The Westphalians came to Amsterdam mostly for economic reasons.
The first mass immigrants were people from Indonesia, who came to Amsterdam after the independence of the Dutch East Indies in the 1940s and 1950s. In the 1960s guest workers from Turkey, Morocco, Italy and Spain migrated to Amsterdam. After the independence of Suriname in 1975 a large wave of Surinamese settled in Amsterdam, mostly in the Bijlmer area. Other immigrants come from Europe and North America. In the seventies and eighties many 'old' Amsterdammers moved to 'new' cities like Almere and Purmerend, prompted by third planological bill. Young professionals and artists moved into neighbourhoods the Pijp and the Jordaan abandoned by these Amsterdammers. The non-Western immigrants settled mostly in the social housing projects in Amsterdam-West and the Bijlmer.
Amsterdam has two universities: the University of Amsterdam (Universiteit van Amsterdam), and the VU University (Vrije Universiteit). Other institutions for higher education include an art school, De Rietveldacademie, the Hogeschool van Amsterdam and the Amsterdamse Hogeschool voor de Kunsten. Amsterdam's International Institute of Social History is one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions concerning social history, and especially the history of the labour movement. Amsterdam's Hortus Botanicus, founded in the early 1600s, is one of the oldest botanical gardens in the world, with many old and rare specimens, amongst them the coffee plant that served as the parent for the entire coffee culture in Central and South America.
Amsterdam is thought to have excellent primary schools. Some of these schools base their teachings on particular pedagogic theories like the various Montessori schools. Many however are based on religion. This used to be primarily Roman Catholicism and various Protestant denominations, but with the influx of Muslim immigrants there is a rise in the number of Muslim schools. In addition to these schools based on distinct beliefs there are public schools.
The same goes for secondary education. Amsterdam is noted for having 3 independent grammar schools (Dutch: gymnasia), the Vossius Gymnasium, Barlaeus Gymnasium and St. Ignatius Gymnasium, where a classical curriculum including Latin and classical Greek is taught. Though believed until recently by many to be an anachronistic and elitist concept that would soon die out, the gymnasia have recently experienced a revival.
Amsterdam is a major hub of the highway system of the Netherlands by
design. Dutch freeways (comparable to US interstate and UK motorway roads) numbered one through eight were originally planned to originate from Amsterdam in
1932. Complications, like the outbreak of the Second World War and shifting priorities led to the current situation, where roads A1, A2, and A4 originate from Amsterdam according to the original plan. These connect the capital with Germany (via Apeldoorn), Utrecht and Leiden respectively. Cancelled road A3 would connect Amsterdam with Rotterdam via Gouda, but conservation of the Groene Hart was deemed more important in 1970. Road A8, leading north to Zaandam and Ringroad A10 were opened between 1968 and 1974.
Besides the A1, A2, A4 and A8, several freeways, such as the A7 and A6, mainly carry traffic bound for Amsterdam, but terminate at one of the former.
The A10 Ringroad surrounding the city connects Amsterdam with the Dutch national network of freeways. Interchanges on the A10 allow cars to enter the city by transferring to one of the eighteen city roads, numbered s101 through s118. These city roads are regional roads without grade separation, and sometimes without a central reservation. Most are accessible by
cyclists. The s100 is called the centrumring, a smaller ringroad circumnavigating the city centre.
Amsterdam is served by eight stations of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch
Railways). Five are intercity stops: Sloterdijk, Zuid, Amstel, Bijlmer ArenA and Amsterdam Centraal. Many other stations exist in the Amsterdam urban area.
Leaning buildings are common in Amsterdam. Amsterdam is noted for many outstanding museums, including the Rijksmuseum, the Stedelijk Museum, the Rembrandt House Museum, and its world-class symphony orchestra, the Concertgebouworkest, the home base of which is the Concertgebouw. The Van Gogh Museum houses the largest collection of Van Gogh's paintings and drawings in the world. Anne Frank House is also a popular tourist attraction.
Amsterdam is also famous for its red-light district, de Wallen. Window prostitution is legal in the Netherlands at specific places. The red-light district is located in the centre of the city along major canals and is clearly marked on maps.
Centered around the Wallen, but also elsewhere in the city, coffee-shops sell cannabis. This is not completely legal but is tolerated when small quantities of cannabis (up to 5 grams) are involved.
Amsterdam is the hometown of Eredivisie football club Ajax. Its home base is the modern stadium Amsterdam ArenA, located in the south-east of the city.
In 1928, Amsterdam hosted the Games of the IXth Olympiad. The Olympic Stadium built for the occasion has been completely restored and is now used for cultural and sporting events.
Amsterdam also is home to a famous ice rink, the Jaap Eden baan. The Amstel Tijgers play in this arena in the Dutch ice hockey premier league. In speed skating many international championships have been fought in the 400-meter lane of this ice rink.
The city also has a baseball team, the Amsterdam Pirates, who play in the Dutch Major League. There are three field hockey teams, Amsterdam, Pinoké and Hurley, who play their matches around the Wagener Stadium. These teams are often referred to as playing in Amsterdam; however, all of them (even Amsterdam) play their matches in the neighbouring city of Amstelveen. There is also a basketball team, the Amsterdam Astronauts, who compete in the Dutch premier division and play their games in the Sporthallen Zuid, near the Olympic Stadium.
Since 1999 the city of Amsterdam has honoured its best sportsmen and -women at the Amsterdam Sports Awards. Boxer Raymond Joval and field hockey midfielder Carole Thate were the first to receive the awards in 1999.
LINKS and REFERENCE
1. Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm Floating Boat Show, Aug 30-Sep 2
2. Amsterdam Seaport, Netherlands: HISWA in-water boat show, Sep 4-9
4. Genova, Italy: Genoa International Boat Show, Oct 6- 14
5. Fort Lauderdale, USA: Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show, Oct 25-29
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