HRH QUEEN ELIZABETH II

History of the British Monarchy and Democratic usurpations

 

 

THE MONARCHY RESTORED


In 1649, following the execution of King Charles I and the abolition of the monarchy, almost every piece of the existing English regalia was sold off or melted down.  Only four items of the ancient coronation regalia - 3 swords and the Coronation Spoon - were to find their way back into the collection after the restoration of the monarchy. 

 

 

St Edward's Crown, 1661 used by Queen Elizabeth on state occasions

 

St Edward's Crown, 1661

 

 

For over 600 years kings and queens of England have stored crowns, robes and other valuable items of ceremonial regalia at the Tower of London. Since the 17th century, at least, this collection has been known as the 'Crown Jewels' and has been shown to visitors to the Tower.

 

 

HM QUEEN ELIZABETH II

 

The Queen was born in London on 21 April 1926, the first child of The Duke and Duchess of York, subsequently King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Five weeks later she was christened Elizabeth Alexandra Mary in the chapel at Buckingham Palace.

 

The Princess's early years were spent at 145 Piccadilly, the London house taken by her parents shortly after her birth; at White Lodge in Richmond Park; and at the country homes of her grandparents, King George V and Queen Mary, and the Earl and Countess of Strathmore. When she was six years old, her parents took over Royal Lodge in Windsor Great Park as their own country home.

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Elizabeth's portrait by Rolf Harris

 

 

 

 

Princess Elizabeth was educated at home with Princess Margaret, her younger sister. After her father succeeded to the throne in 1936 and she became heir presumptive, she started to study constitutional history and law. She also studied art and music; learned to ride (she has been a keen horsewoman since early childhood); and enjoyed amateur theatricals and swimming - she won the Children's Challenge Shield at London's Bath Club when she was thirteen. She enrolled as a Girl Guide when she was eleven, and later became a Sea Ranger.

 

As the Princess grew older she began to take part in public life. She broadcast for the first time in October 1940, when she was 14; she sent a message during the BBC's children's programme to all the children of Britain and the Commonwealth, particularly to those children who were being evacuated for safety reasons. In early1942 she was appointed Colonel-in-Chief of the Grenadier Guards, and on her sixteenth birthday she carried out her first public engagement, when she inspected the regiment. In April 1943, Princess Elizabeth carried out her first solo public engagement, when she spent a day with a Grenadier Guards tank battalion in Southern Command.

 

 

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth

 

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth

 

 

Thereafter her official duties increased, particularly in connection with young people: she was President of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children in Hackney and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. From March 1944 onwards, she also began to accompany the King and Queen on many of their tours within Britain.
 
Shortly after her eighteenth birthday in 1944, Princess Elizabeth was appointed a Counsellor of State during the King's absence on a tour of the Italian battlefields and, for the first time, carried out some of the duties of Head of State. In August that year, with Queen Elizabeth, the Princess received an address from the House of Commons, and replied on behalf of the Throne.

In September 1944, the Princess carried out her first official tour of Scotland with her parents, including her first opening ceremony in October when she opened the recently reconstructed Aberdeen Sailors' Home. The Princess's first flight by air was in July 1945, when she accompanied the King and Queen on a two-day visit to Northern Ireland.

 

 

 

 

 

Coronation of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II

 

 

 

In early 1945 the Princess was made a Subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS). By the end of the war she had reached the rank of Junior Commander, having completed her course at No. 1 Mechanical training Centre of ATS and passed out as a fully qualified driver.

 

After the end of the war, Princess Elizabeth's public engagements continued to grow, and she travelled extensively to attend public functions throughout the British Isles. These included the launching of a new aircraft carrier in Belfast and a tour of Ulster in March 1946, and attending the National Eisteddfod of Wales in August 1946.

 

Her first official overseas visit took place in 1947, when she accompanied her parents and sister on a tour of South Africa. During this tour she celebrated her twenty-first birthday, and gave a broadcast address dedicating herself to the service of the Commonwealth - a dedication she repeated five years later on her accession to the throne.

 

On her return from the South Africa tour, Princess Elizabeth received the freedom of the City of London in June 1947; in July, she received the freedom of the city of Edinburgh.  In November 1947, Princess Elizabeth was created a Lady of the Garter at a private investiture by the King.

 

 

Princess Elizabeth with pet Corgis

 

Princess Elizabeth

 

 

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

Shortly after the Royal Family returned from South Africa, the Princess's engagement to Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten was announced. The couple, who had known each other for many years, were married in Westminster Abbey on 20 November 1947. Lieutenant Mountbatten, now His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was the son of Prince Andrew of Greece and a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria.

The Royal couple had four children, and seven grandchildren.

Prince Charles, now The Prince of Wales, Heir apparent to the throne, was born in 1948, and his sister, Princess Anne, now The Princess Royal, two years later.

After Princess Elizabeth became Queen, their third child, Prince Andrew, arrived in 1960 and the fourth, Prince Edward, in 1964. Prince Andrew and Prince Edward were the first children to be born to a reigning monarch since Queen Victoria had her family.

 

Their grandchildren are Peter and Zara Phillips (b. 1977 and 1981); Prince William of Wales and Prince Henry of Wales (b. 1982 and 1984); Princess Beatrice of York and Princess Eugenie of York (b. 1988 and 1990); and The Lady Louise Windsor, daughter of The Earl and Countess of Wessex (b. 2003).

 

 

HM Queen Elizabeth II coronation day 2 June 1953

 

HM Queen Elizabeth II coronation day 2 June 1953

 

 

ACCESSION AND CORONATION

After her marriage Princess Elizabeth paid formal visits with The Duke of Edinburgh to France and Greece; in autumn 1951 they toured Canada. She also visited Malta four times while The Duke was stationed there on naval duties. In 1952, King George VI's illness forced him to abandon his proposed visit to Australia and New Zealand. The Princess, accompanied by Prince Philip, took his place. On 6 February, during the first stage of this journey, in Kenya, she received the news of her father's death and her own accession to the throne.

Her Majesty's coronation took place in Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953.

 

Representatives of the peers, the Commons and all the great public interests in Britain, the Prime Ministers and leading citizens of the other Commonwealth countries, and representatives of foreign states were present. The ceremony was broadcast on radio around the world and, at The Queen's request, on television. It was television, then in its relative infancy, that brought home the splendour and the deep significance of the coronation to many hundreds of thousands of people in a way never before possible. The coronation was followed by drives through every part of London, a review of the fleet at Spithead, and visits to Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales.

 

In 1660-1, the regalia was entirely remade for King Charles II and it is these objects, among them the crown, orb and sceptres with which Queen Elizabeth II was invested at her coronation, which form the heart of the collection in the Tower of London today.

 

 

The Coronation Regalia


Among the objects on display in the Jewel House are the magnificent solid-gold St Edward's Crown (1661) made for the coronation of Charles II and used to crown Queen Elizabeth II in 1953; the Imperial State Crown (1937), worn by the sovereign on great state occasions; and the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross and the Sovereign's Orb, used at the coronation of every monarch for 350 years. Some of the world's most exceptional and historic precious stones are to be found adorning objects in the collection. Among them Cullinan I and Cullinan II, the two largest top-quality cut diamonds in the world and the extraordinary and ancient Koh-i-Noor diamond. Other famous stones include the Stuart Sapphire, the Black Prince's Ruby, and St Edward's Sapphire all set in the Imperial State Crown.

 

The Swords of Temporal Justice, Spiritual Justice and Mercy (the Curtana), c1626


The Swords of Temporal Justice, Spiritual Justice and Mercy (the Curtana), c1626

 

 

ROLE AS MONARCH

In winter 1953 Her Majesty set out to accomplish, as Queen, the Commonwealth tour she had begun before the death of her father. With The Duke of Edinburgh she visited Bermuda, Jamaica, Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand, Australia, Ceylon, Uganda, Malta and Gibraltar. This was the first of innumerable tours of the Commonwealth they have undertaken at the invitation of the host governments. During the past fifty years The Queen and Prince Philip have also made frequent visits to other countries outside the Commonwealth at the invitation of foreign Heads of State.

 

Since her Coronation, The Queen has also visited nearly every county in Britain, seeing new developments and achievements in industry, agriculture, education, the arts, medicine and sport and many other aspects of national life.

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Elizabeth II - reflections

 

 

 

As Head of State, The Queen maintains close contact with the Prime Minister, with whom she has a weekly audience when she is in London, and with other Ministers of the Crown. She sees all Cabinet papers and the records of Cabinet and Cabinet Committee meetings. She receives important Foreign Office telegrams and a daily summary of events in Parliament.

 

Her Majesty acts as host to the Heads of State of Commonwealth and other countries when they visit Britain, and receives other notable visitors from overseas.  She holds Investitures in Britain and during her visits to other Commonwealth countries, at which she presents honours to people who have distinguished themselves in public life.

 

As Sovereign, Her Majesty is head of the Navy, Army and Air Force of Britain. On becoming Queen she succeeded her father as Colonel-in-Chief of all the Guards Regiments and the Corps of Royal Engineers and as Captain-General of the Royal Regiment of Artillery and the Honourable Artillery Company. At her Coronation she assumed similar positions with a number of other units in Britain and elsewhere in the Commonwealth. (A full list appears in Whitaker's Almanack.)

 

 

HM Queen Elizabeth II, nice hat Maam  HM Queen Elizabeth II

 

HM Queen Elizabeth II

 

 

Every year, Her Majesty entertains some 48,000 people from all sections of the community (including visitors from overseas) at Royal Garden Parties and other occasions. At least three garden parties take place at Buckingham Palace and a fourth at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, in Edinburgh. Additional 'special' parties are occasionally arranged, for example to mark a significant anniversary for a charity. In 1997, there was a special Royal Garden Party attended by those sharing The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh's golden wedding anniversary. In the summer of 2002 there was a special Golden Jubilee Garden Party for individuals born on Accession Day, 6 February 1952.

 

 

 

 

 

NBC News: BBC apologizes to the Queen

 

 

 

Her Majesty also gives regular receptions and lunches for people who have made a contribution in different areas of national and international life. She also appears on many public occasions such as the services of the Orders of the Garter and the Thistle; Trooping the Colour; the Remembrance Day ceremony; and national services at St Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Abbey.

 

The Queen is Patron or President of over 700 organisations. Each year, she undertakes a large number of engagements: some 478 in the UK and overseas in 2003.

 



THE QUEEN'S MESSAGE TO VICTIMS OF THE EARTHQUAKE IN ASIA DECEMBER 2004

Her Majesty sends her condolences to the countries that have been affected. Click here to read The Queen's message to the Foreign Secretary.

 

 

 

 

GREAT BRITISH TRADITIONS - DAMES

 

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order is composed of five classes in civil and military divisions. In descending order of seniority, these are:

1. Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (GBE)

2. Knight or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (KBE or DBE)
3. Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE)
4. Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (OBE)
5. Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE)

 

 

Dame Butler Sloss speaking in the House of Lords  Dame Ellen MacArthur showing off her medals

 

Two famous Dames- Butler Sloss and Ellen MacArthur

 


Only the highest two ranks automatically entitle its recipient to become a knight or dame, an honour allowing (but not prescribing) the postulant to use the title "Sir" (male) or "Dame" (female) before his or her first name (though men can be knighted separately from this and other Orders of Chivalry). Honorary knighthoods, given to individuals who are not nationals of a realm where Queen Elizabeth II is Head of State, permit use of the honour as a post-nominal but not as a title before their name. Awards in the Order of the British Empire were discontinued in those Commonwealth realms that established national systems of honours and awards such as the Order of Canada, the Order of Australia and the New Zealand Order of Merit. Foreign recipients are classified as honorary members of the Order they receive, and do not contribute to the numbers restricted to that Order as full members do.

There is also a related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are not members of the Order, but who are nonetheless affiliated with the Order. The British Empire Medal had not been used in the United Kingdom or its dependencies since 1993, but was revived in 2012 with 293 BEMs awarded for the Queen's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, BEM is used by the Cook Islands and by some other Commonwealth nations.

The Order's motto is For God and the Empire. It is the most junior of the British orders of chivalry, and the largest, with over 100,000 living members worldwide.

 

 

LAW & ORDER

 

The English judicial system and punishment system is operated under Her Majesty's governance, hence: HM Prisons. The Courts though occasionally get things wrong and when they do there is supposed to be a corrective safety net, but is it safe?

 

We know of several cases, one civil and one criminal where for sure the so-called appeal systems are lacking completely, in that there is no apparent redress. In that there is no mechanism for redress, then the system is oppressive and in breach of Article 13, which is not in the English Human Rights Act 1998.

 

 

The English judicial system has no effective safety net

 

How about a Razzie or a Knighthood for Judge Joseph - for monumental cock-ups - see Esther Rantzen?

 

 

LINKS

 

https://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchUK/Honours/OrderoftheBritishEmpire.aspx

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_the_British_Empire

 

 

The Crown Jewels, Queen Elizabeth IIThe Crown Jewels

 

 

Further information about the Crown Jewels can be found in the Official Crown Jewels Guidebook.

 

 

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